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Accounting Terms

TermDescription
Account Formal record that represents, in words, money or other unit of measurement, certain resources, claims to such resources, transactions or other events that result in changes to those resources and claims.
Accrual Basis Method of ACCOUNTING that recognizes REVENUE when earned, rather than when collected. Expenses are recognized when incurred rather than when paid.
AICPA AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF CERTIFIED PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS.
Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) Tax imposed to back up the regular income tax imposed on CORPORATION and individuals to assure that taxpayers with economically measured income exceeding certain thresholds pay at least some income tax.
Amortization Gradual and periodic reduction of any amount, such as the periodic writedown of a BOND premium, the cost of an intangible ASSET or periodic payment Of MORTGAGES or other DEBT.
Annuity Series of payments, usually payable at specified time intervals.
Balance Sheet Basic FINANCIAL STATEMENT, usually accompanied by appropriate DISCLOSURES that describe the basis of ACCOUNTING used in its preparation and presentation of a specified date the entity's ASSETS, LIABILITIES and the EQUITY of its owners. Also known as a STA
Bankruptcy Legal process, governed by federal statute, whereby the DEBTS of an insolvent person are liquidated after being satisfied to the greatest extent possible by the DEBTOR'S ASSETS. During bankruptcy, the debtor's assets are held and managed by a court appoin
Board of Directors Individuals responsible for overseeing the affairs of an entity, including the election of its officers. The board of a CORPORATION that issues stock is elected by stockholders. (See AUDIT COMMITTEE.)
Bond One type of long-term PROMISSORY NOTE, frequently issued to the public as a SECURITY regulated under federal securities laws or state BLUE SKY LAWS. Bonds can either be registered in the owner's name or are issued as bearer instruments.
Budget Financial plan that serves as an estimate of future cost, REVENUES or both.
Capital Gain Portion of the total GAIN recognized on the sale or exchange of a noninventory asset which is not taxed as ORDINARY INCOME. Capital gains have historically been taxed at a lower rate than ordinary income.
Cash Basis Method of bookkeeping by which REVENUES and EXPENDITURES are recorded when they are received and paid.
Certificate of Deposit (CD) Formal instrument issued by a bank upon the deposit of funds which may not be withdrawn for a specified time period. Typically, an early withdrawal will incur a penalty.
Collateral ASSET provided to a CREDITOR as security for a loan.
Corporation Form of doing business pursuant to a charter granted by a state or federal government. Corporations typically are characterized by the issuance of freely transferable CAPITAL STOCK, perpetual life, centralized management, and limitation of owners' LIABILI
Cost Accounting Procedures used for rationally classifying, recording, and allocating current or predicted costs that relate to a certain product or production process.
Deficit Financial shortage that occurs when LIABILITIES exceed ASSETS.
Depreciation Expense allowance made for wear and tear on an ASSET over its estimated useful life.
Created by: JohnW
 

 



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