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# Fly to Learn

### Physics Study based on Flight Simulator

Stored energy due to height and gravity Potential Energy
The energy of motion Kinetic Energy
State the Law of the Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it only changes form
The distance something travels per unit time Speed
Speed in a given direction Velocity
What type of quantity is velocity? [Advanced] A vector quantity
What makes velocity a vector quantity? [Advanced] Vectors have both magnitude (size) and direction (e.g. 35mph west)
The highest speed that can be reached by a falling object is its __________ terminal velocity
Terminal velocity is achieved when ____ the force of gravity (pulling down on the object) is cancelled by the force of drag (air resistance pushing upward)
What happens as a plane climbs? Its speed decreases as kinetic energy (motion) is converted into potential energy (position).
What happens as a plane dives? Its speed increases as potential energy (position) is converted into kinetic energy (motion).
What is force? A push or a pull on an object
What two things does a vector quantity have? [Advanced] Magnitude and direction
Force is what type of quantity? [Advanced] a vector quantity
What are the 4 forces of flight, and in which direction do they act? Lift pushes upward, weight (the force of gravity) pulls downward, thrust moves the plane forward, and drag resists it.
What do we call the force every object in the universe exerts on every other object? The Force of Gravity
What is the acceleration of gravity on Earth 9.8 m/sec^2
What is the acceleration of gravity on the Moon? 1.6 m/sec^2; approximately 1/6 of Earth's gravity
The force of gravity on the mass of an object gives us its ________. Weight
What is the payload on an airplane? The payload is the total mass of cargo, crew, and passengers in the plane.
What is the force that helps pilots overcome the weight of the plane? Lift
What is the direction of lift? Lift is "up." Its force is perpendicular to the plane in level flight in the opposite direction of weight.
What two things does lift depend on? Lift depends on airspeed and the angle of attack
"As airspeed increases, the pressure drops" is an example of what principle? The Bernoulli principle
According to the Bernoulli principle, where is the pressure highest on a plane's wing? The pressure is highest under the wing because the air is traveling slower.
According to the Bernoulli principle, what creates lift? The pressure above the wing is lower than the pressure below the wing, causing a net force upward (lift).
What is net force? The sum of all the forces exerted on an object.
State Newton's 1st Law of Motion An object in motion will remain in motion, and an object at rest will remain at rest, unless acted on by an unbalanced force.
What is inertia? The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
State Newton's 2nd Law of Motion A net force exerted on an object will produce a proportional acceleration. (That is, if an unbalanced force acts on an object, it will accelerate)
What is sometimes stated as "for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction? Newton's 3rd Law of Motion
When a plane takes off, what action/reaction is at work? The propeller pushes air backwards, and the air pushes back on the propeller and attached plane, moving it forward (thrust).
How is a parked plane an example of Newton's 1st Law of Motion? A parked plane will not move unless a force acts on it.
How is a plane in the air an example of Newton's 1st Law of Motion? A plane in the air will fly at a constant speed if all the forces on it are balanced.
What force resists the movement of the airplane through the air? Drag
Why do engineers try to decrease drag? Drag slows down the plane and lessens fuel economy.
What is the direction of drag? Drag acts along and opposed to the direction of flight.
What are flaps? Flaps are a portion of the wing that can be raised or lowered to control drag and lift.
How do flaps effect the forces on an airplane? When flaps are up, drag and lift decrease; when flaps are down, drag and lift increase.
When might a pilot want to increase both drag and lift? A pilot would want to increase drag and lift when landing the plane: drag slows the plane down, and lift keeps it from crashing.
What is thrust? Thrust is a push forward along the direction of drag.
Apply Newton's third law to thrust from a propeller. As the propeller pushes the air backwards, the air pushes the propeller and attached plane forward. We call this forward force thrust.
What word is applied to the up and down movement of a plane's nose? Pitch
How do we control pitch? The elevator(s) on the horizontal surface of the tail are used to control pitch
What word is applied to the left and right movement of the plane's nose? Yaw
How do we control yaw? The rudder on the upright surface of the tail controls yaw.
When the plane rotates around the axis in the middle of the plane, we call that a _______ Roll
Roll is controlled by The ailerons on the back surface of the wing. One goes up and the other down.
What is stability? Stability is the property of an airplane to return to its original position when disturbed by an outside force.
What two design features help create stability? 1. dihedral wings (the wing tips are higher than where it attaches to the plane's body, and 2. triangular tail shape which helps control pitch like arrow feathers.
What do we call the spot on an object where all weight is centered and balanced? Its center of gravity. In an airplane, this is found forward of the wings.
What is torque or moment? [Advanced] Torque is calculated by force multiplied by the distance from a pivot point (fulcrum)
How do we calculate torque? [Advanced] T(torque) = F(force) * d (distance from fulcrum/pivot point)
When all forces acting on an object cancel each other, so the net force is 0, we call them this: Balanced forces
Unbalanced forces result in a net force in some _______. direction
When unbalanced forces act on an object, the object does this. Accelerates in the direction of the net force.
If a plane is flying level at a constant speed, what can you tell about the 4 forces of flight acting on it? The forces are balanced.
When a plane is flying level at a constant speed, which of Newton's Laws of Motion is at work? Newton's 1st Law of Motion: an object in motion remains in motion in the same direction at the same speed unless acted on by unbalanced forces.
If a pilot applies more throttle, and the plane accelerates, which of Newton's Laws is at work? Newton's 2nd Law of Motion: A net force exerted on an object will produce a proportional acceleration.
The rate of change in speed of an object (speeding up or slowing down) Acceleration
Solve a practice problem (using 5 step method) What is the speed of a car that goes a distance of 125 km in 2 hours? 62.5 km/h
Solve a practice problem (using 5 step method) If a student takes 3 seconds to run to first base at an average speed of 6.5 m/s, what distance did she run? 19.5 m
Solve a practice problem (using 5 step method) A swimmer's average speed is 8 m/s. What will her time be in a 200 m race? 25 s
Solve a practice problem (using 5 step method) What is the acceleration of a skater that goes from 0 m/s to 6 m/s in 12s? 05 m/s^2
Solve a practice problem (using 5 step method) If a water skier with a mass of 55 is pulled with a force of 110N, what will the acceleration be? 2 m/s^2
Solve a practice problem (using 5 step method) [Advanced] What is the weight of a 65 km student on earth? 637 N
Created by: judi829

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