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# Fly to Learn

### Physics Study based on Flight Simulator

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Stored energy due to height and gravity | Potential Energy |

The energy of motion | Kinetic Energy |

State the Law of the Conservation of Energy | Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it only changes form |

The distance something travels per unit time | Speed |

Speed in a given direction | Velocity |

What type of quantity is velocity? [Advanced] | A vector quantity |

What makes velocity a vector quantity? [Advanced] | Vectors have both magnitude (size) and direction (e.g. 35mph west) |

The highest speed that can be reached by a falling object is its __________ | terminal velocity |

Terminal velocity is achieved when ____ | the force of gravity (pulling down on the object) is cancelled by the force of drag (air resistance pushing upward) |

What happens as a plane climbs? | Its speed decreases as kinetic energy (motion) is converted into potential energy (position). |

What happens as a plane dives? | Its speed increases as potential energy (position) is converted into kinetic energy (motion). |

What is force? | A push or a pull on an object |

What two things does a vector quantity have? [Advanced] | Magnitude and direction |

Force is what type of quantity? [Advanced] | a vector quantity |

What are the 4 forces of flight, and in which direction do they act? | Lift pushes upward, weight (the force of gravity) pulls downward, thrust moves the plane forward, and drag resists it. |

What do we call the force every object in the universe exerts on every other object? | The Force of Gravity |

What is the acceleration of gravity on Earth | 9.8 m/sec^2 |

What is the acceleration of gravity on the Moon? | 1.6 m/sec^2; approximately 1/6 of Earth's gravity |

The force of gravity on the mass of an object gives us its ________. | Weight |

What is the payload on an airplane? | The payload is the total mass of cargo, crew, and passengers in the plane. |

What is the force that helps pilots overcome the weight of the plane? | Lift |

What is the direction of lift? | Lift is "up." Its force is perpendicular to the plane in level flight in the opposite direction of weight. |

What two things does lift depend on? | Lift depends on airspeed and the angle of attack |

"As airspeed increases, the pressure drops" is an example of what principle? | The Bernoulli principle |

According to the Bernoulli principle, where is the pressure highest on a plane's wing? | The pressure is highest under the wing because the air is traveling slower. |

According to the Bernoulli principle, what creates lift? | The pressure above the wing is lower than the pressure below the wing, causing a net force upward (lift). |

What is net force? | The sum of all the forces exerted on an object. |

State Newton's 1st Law of Motion | An object in motion will remain in motion, and an object at rest will remain at rest, unless acted on by an unbalanced force. |

What is inertia? | The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion |

State Newton's 2nd Law of Motion | A net force exerted on an object will produce a proportional acceleration. (That is, if an unbalanced force acts on an object, it will accelerate) |

What is sometimes stated as "for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction? | Newton's 3rd Law of Motion |

When a plane takes off, what action/reaction is at work? | The propeller pushes air backwards, and the air pushes back on the propeller and attached plane, moving it forward (thrust). |

How is a parked plane an example of Newton's 1st Law of Motion? | A parked plane will not move unless a force acts on it. |

How is a plane in the air an example of Newton's 1st Law of Motion? | A plane in the air will fly at a constant speed if all the forces on it are balanced. |

What force resists the movement of the airplane through the air? | Drag |

Why do engineers try to decrease drag? | Drag slows down the plane and lessens fuel economy. |

What is the direction of drag? | Drag acts along and opposed to the direction of flight. |

What are flaps? | Flaps are a portion of the wing that can be raised or lowered to control drag and lift. |

How do flaps effect the forces on an airplane? | When flaps are up, drag and lift decrease; when flaps are down, drag and lift increase. |

When might a pilot want to increase both drag and lift? | A pilot would want to increase drag and lift when landing the plane: drag slows the plane down, and lift keeps it from crashing. |

What is thrust? | Thrust is a push forward along the direction of drag. |

Apply Newton's third law to thrust from a propeller. | As the propeller pushes the air backwards, the air pushes the propeller and attached plane forward. We call this forward force thrust. |

What word is applied to the up and down movement of a plane's nose? | Pitch |

How do we control pitch? | The elevator(s) on the horizontal surface of the tail are used to control pitch |

What word is applied to the left and right movement of the plane's nose? | Yaw |

How do we control yaw? | The rudder on the upright surface of the tail controls yaw. |

When the plane rotates around the axis in the middle of the plane, we call that a _______ | Roll |

Roll is controlled by | The ailerons on the back surface of the wing. One goes up and the other down. |

What is stability? | Stability is the property of an airplane to return to its original position when disturbed by an outside force. |

What two design features help create stability? | 1. dihedral wings (the wing tips are higher than where it attaches to the plane's body, and 2. triangular tail shape which helps control pitch like arrow feathers. |

What do we call the spot on an object where all weight is centered and balanced? | Its center of gravity. In an airplane, this is found forward of the wings. |

What is torque or moment? [Advanced] | Torque is calculated by force multiplied by the distance from a pivot point (fulcrum) |

How do we calculate torque? [Advanced] | T(torque) = F(force) * d (distance from fulcrum/pivot point) |

When all forces acting on an object cancel each other, so the net force is 0, we call them this: | Balanced forces |

Unbalanced forces result in a net force in some _______. | direction |

When unbalanced forces act on an object, the object does this. | Accelerates in the direction of the net force. |

If a plane is flying level at a constant speed, what can you tell about the 4 forces of flight acting on it? | The forces are balanced. |

When a plane is flying level at a constant speed, which of Newton's Laws of Motion is at work? | Newton's 1st Law of Motion: an object in motion remains in motion in the same direction at the same speed unless acted on by unbalanced forces. |

If a pilot applies more throttle, and the plane accelerates, which of Newton's Laws is at work? | Newton's 2nd Law of Motion: A net force exerted on an object will produce a proportional acceleration. |

The rate of change in speed of an object (speeding up or slowing down) | Acceleration |

Solve a practice problem (using 5 step method) What is the speed of a car that goes a distance of 125 km in 2 hours? | 62.5 km/h |

Solve a practice problem (using 5 step method) If a student takes 3 seconds to run to first base at an average speed of 6.5 m/s, what distance did she run? | 19.5 m |

Solve a practice problem (using 5 step method) A swimmer's average speed is 8 m/s. What will her time be in a 200 m race? | 25 s |

Solve a practice problem (using 5 step method) What is the acceleration of a skater that goes from 0 m/s to 6 m/s in 12s? | 05 m/s^2 |

Solve a practice problem (using 5 step method) If a water skier with a mass of 55 is pulled with a force of 110N, what will the acceleration be? | 2 m/s^2 |

Solve a practice problem (using 5 step method) [Advanced] What is the weight of a 65 km student on earth? | 637 N |