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Chemical Bonding

PAP Chemistry unit 5

QuestionAnswer
bond length the average distance between two bonded atoms
bond energy the energy required to break the bonds of a chemical compound and form neutral isolated atoms (usually kJ/mol)
chemical bond attractive force that holds atoms or ions together; mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together
chemical formula representation of substance by a combination of atomic symbols and numerical subscripts, indicating the relative numbers of atoms of each kind
covalent bond a bond formed when atoms share one or more electrons pairs; usually it involves only(valence electrons). Bonding between two atoms of the same element is covalent.
crystal lattice orderly arrangement found in ionic crystals in which ions minimize their potential energy
diatomic molecule a molecule containing only two atoms
dipole a molecule or a part of a molecule that contains both positively and negatively charged regions; equal and opposite charges separated a short distance
dipole-dipole forces forces of attraction between polar molecules
ductility ability of a substance to be drawn or pulled out into a wire
electron-dot configuration an electron-configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the element’s symbol
enthalpy of vaporization – amount of energy absorbed as heat required to vaporize a specific amount of metal at a constant pressure; a measure of the metallic bond strength
expanded valence when atoms are surrounded by more than eight electrons due to bonding which involves electrons in d orbitals as well as in s and p orbitals
formula unit simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compound’s formula can be established; the collection of atoms corresponding to an ionic compound’s formula such that the molar mass of the compound is the same as the mass of 1 mol of formula units
hybrid orbitals orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of 2 or more orbitals on the same atom; have properties to explain the geometry of chemical bonds between atoms
hybridization the mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies of the same atom to produce new orbitals of equal energies; represents the mixing of higher- and lowerenergy orbitals to form orbitals of intermediate energy
hydrogen bond the intermolecular force occurring when a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom of one molecule is attracted to two unshared electrons of another molecule
intermolecular forces forces of attraction between molecules
ionic bond chemical bond that results from the electrical attraction between cations and anions, combined so the overall structure is neutral. In pure ionic bonding, some atoms completely give up electrons to other atoms
ionic compound a compound composed of ions bound together by electrostatic attraction
lattice energy the energy associated with constructing a crystal lattice relative to the energy of all constituent atoms separated by infinite distances; the energy released when 1 mol of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions
Lewis Structure a structural formula in which electrons are represented by dots; dot pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent pairs in covalent bonds
London Dispersion Forces – the intermolecular attraction resulting from the uneven distribution of electrons(caused by the electrons’ constant motion) and the creation of temporary dipoles
lone pair an unshared pair of valence electrons which therefore belong exclusively to one atom of a covalently bonded pair of atoms
malleability the ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into a sheet
metallic bond a bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them
molecular compound a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules
molecular formula a chemical formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms in a single molecule, but not the arrangement of the atoms
molecular geometry 3-d arrangement of a molecule’s atoms in space
molecular polarity uneven distribution of molecular charge
molecule a neutral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds; the smallest particle of a substance that has all of the chemical properties of that substance
multiple bond a bond in which the atoms share more than one pair of electrons, such as a double bond or a triple bond
non-polar covalent bond – a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are equally attracted to both bonded atoms resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge
octet rule chemical compounds tend to from so that each atom, by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has an octet of electrons (8) in its highest occupied energy level
polar covalent bond a covalent bond in which a pair of electrons shared by two atoms is held more closely by one atom resulting in an uneven distribution of electrical charge
polar describes a molecule in which the positive and negative charges are separated
polyatomic ion a charged group of two or more covalently bonded atoms
resonance the bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure; to indicated resonance, a double-headed arrow is placed between a molecule’s resonance structures
sea of electrons description of outer electrons in metals indicating their delocalization (they do not belong to any one atom and can roam freely)
single bond a covalent bond in which two atoms share one pair of electrons
structural formula a formula that indicates the location of the atoms, groups, or ions relative to one another in a molecule and that indicates the number, kind, arrangement, and location of chemical bonds but not of unshared pairs of electrons
VSEPR Theory repulsion between the sets of valence-level electrons surround an atom causes these sets to be oriented as far apart as possible; predicts some molecular shapes based on the idea that pairs of valence electrons surrounding an atom repel each other
Created by: shoemakerems