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Regents Chem - atomic theory

Proton subatomic particle with a positive charge and mass of 1 amu. Found inside the nucleus.
Neutron subatomic particle with neutral charge and a mass of 1 amu. Found inside the nucleus.
Nucleon protons and neutrons (found inside the nucleus)
Electron subatomic particle with a negative charge and no significant mass (1/1836 amu). Located outside nucleus
Orbital region outside the nucleus where you have a 90% probability of finding an electron
Mass number protons + neutrons. The top number in an elements notation.
Atomic number # protons
Isotopes same element (same # protons) but with different numbers of neutrons (different mass)
Ions elements that have a charge due to the gain or loss of electrons. Gaining electrons creates a negative ion
Ground state electrons are in their lowest energy levels (ie: magnesium, 2-8-2)
Excited State electrons are excited and at least one electron is in a higher than normal energy level (ie: magnesium 2-7-3)
Electron configuration lists the number of electrons in each energy level. Max #’s: 1st level: 2; 2nd level: 8; 3rd level: 18; 4th level: 32
Lewis (Electron) Dot Structure element symbol with dots around it, representing the valence electrons. 1st 2 electrons are paired and the rest fill uniformly.
Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment alpha particles (+2) were aimed at gold foil. Two things were proven: 1-the atom is mostly empty space; 2-there is a dense positive center (nucleus)
kernel everything but the valence electrons (nucleus + inner electrons)
Bohr Model model of the atom with the nucleus surrounded by energy levels containing the electrons
Wave Mechanical (Electron Cloud) Model current atomic model. Electrons are located in orbitals (where you have a 90% probability of finding an electron)
A negative ion has more electrons than protons
A positive ion has more protons than electrons
A neutral atom # protons same as # electrons
Created by: etucci



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