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Matter & Energy

Regents Chem -Matter & Energy

Pure Substance same composition everywhere (elements and compounds)
Mixture 2 or more pure substances PHYSICALLY combined
Homogeneous mixture uniformly combined mixture, no layers (solutions)
Heterogeneous mixture mixture with layers or sections
Melting/fusion solid turning into liquid (endothermic)
Freezing/solidification liquid turning into solid (exothermic)
Vaporization liquid turning into gas (endothermic)
Condensation gas turning into liquid (exothermic)
Sublimation solid turning into gas (endothermic)
Deposition gas turning into solid (exothermic)
Distillation separating components of a mixture by differences in boiling points
Filtration separation technique for heterogeneous mixture. Filtrate is what passes through the filter. Residue is left on the paper.
Endothermic a reaction that requires an input of energy (ie phase changes s->l->g) or reactions from table I with a positive delta H (heat is written on the LEFT)
Exothermic a reaction that has a net release of energy (ie phase changes g->l->s) or reactions from table I with a negative delta H (heat is written on the RIGHT)
Chemical properties/changes properties/changes that can ONLY be observed by altering the chemical make up of the substance (ie: burning, rusting, cooking)
Physical properties/changes properties/changes that can be observed without altering the chemical make up of the substance (ie: PHASE CHANGES, tearing, crushing)
Solid state of matter with definite shape and volume. Particles vibrate in place. Low energy.
Liquid state of matter with definite volume but not definite shape. Particle move around with more energy than solid.
Gas state of matter with no definite shape or volume. Volume is determined by the container. Highest energy.
malleable a metal that can be pounded or flattened into thin sheets
ductile metallic property - can be heated and made into wires
Centrifugation separating a mixture that contains small solids by spinning it really fast so the solid settles out
Evaporation Separating a mixture by boiling out the liquid so only the solid remains
Chromatography Separating a mixture by solubility and particle size on a vertical piece of paper with the bottom soaked in a solvent
Element The simplest form of matter that retains the properties of that type of matter. It can't be broken down by chemical means.
Compound 2 or more elements chemically combined in a fixed ratio. A compound CAN be broken down using electrolysis
Electrolysis Using electricity to force a reaction to occur. This is the only way to separate a compound into its elements.
Created by: etucci