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Matter & Energy

Regents Chem -Matter & Energy

Pure Substance same composition everywhere (elements and compounds)
Mixture 2 or more pure substances physically combined
Homogeneous mixture uniformly combined mixture, no layers (solutions)
Heterogeneous mixture mixture with layers or sections
Melting or fusion solid turning into liquid (endothermic)
Freezing or solidification liquid turning into solid (exothermic)
Vaporization liquid turning into gas (endothermic)
Condensation gas turning into liquid (exothermic)
Sublimation solid turning into gas (endothermic)
Deposition gas turning into solid (exothermic)
Distillation separating components of a mixture by differences in boiling points
Filtration separation technique for heterogeneous mixture. Creates filtrate and residue.
Endothermic a reaction that requires a net input of energy
Exothermic a reaction that has a net release of energy
Chemical properties/changes Can ONLY be observed by altering the chemical make up of the substance (ie: burning, rusting, cooking)
Physical properties/changes Can be observed without altering the chemical make up of the substance (ie: tearing, crushing)
Solid Has definite shape and volume. Particles vibrate in place. Low energy.
Liquid Has definite volume but no definite shape. Particles move around with more energy than solid.
Gas No definite shape or volume. Volume is determined by the container. Highest energy.
malleable metallic property- can be pounded or flattened into thin sheets
ductile metallic property - can be heated and made into wires
Centrifugation separating a mixture that contains small solids by spinning it really fast so the solid settles out
Evaporation Separating a mixture by boiling out the liquid so only the solid remains, while liquid escapes into atmosphere
Chromatography Separating a mixture by solubility and particle size on a vertical piece of paper with the bottom soaked in a solvent
Element The simplest form of matter that retains the properties of that type of matter. It can't be broken down by chemical means.
Compound 2 or more elements chemically combined in a fixed ratio. Cannot be broken down by physical means
Electrolysis Using electricity to force a reaction to occur. This is the only way to separate a compound into its elements.
Created by: etucci