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chapter 4

an element an element is a substance that cannot be split up into simpler substances by chemical means
a triad a triad is a group of elements with similar chemical properties in which the atomic weight of the middle element is approximately equal to the average of the other two
Newlands' Octaves Newlands' Octaves are groups of elements arranged in order of increasing atomic weight in which the first and the eighth element of each group have similar properties
Mendeleev's Periodic Law Mendeleev's Periodic Law: when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic weight(relavtive atomic mass) the properties of the elements vary periodically
atomic number the atomic number of an atom is the number of protons in the nucleus of that atom
the modern periodic table the modern periodic table is an arrangment of elements in order of increasing atomic number
when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number the properties of the elements vary periodically
the mass number of an element the mass number of an elementis the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom of that element
isotopes isotopes are atoms of the same element (with the same atomic number) that have different mass numbers due to the different number of neutrons in the nucleus
relative atomic mass the average of the mass numbers of the isotopes of that element as they occur naturally taking their abundancies into account expressed on a scale in which the atoms of the carbon-12 isotope have a mass of exactly 12 units
the aufbau principle the aufbau principle states that when building up the electronic configuration of an atom in its ground state, the electrons occupy the lowest available energy level.
Hunds rule of maximum multiplicity Hunds rule of maximum multiplicity ststes that when two or more orbitals of equal energy are available, the electrons occupy them singly before filling them in pairs
the pauli exclusion principle the pauli exclusion principle states that no more than two electrons may occupy an orbital and they must have opposite spin.
Created by: juliana96



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