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Organic Chemistry

Definitions

TermDefinition
Heat of Reaction Is the heat change when the number of moles of reactants indicated in the balanced equation for the reaction react completely.
The Heat of Combustion Is the The heat change when one mole of the substance is completely burned in excess oxygen
The kilogram calorific value of a fuel The heat energy produced when 1 kg of the fuel is completely burned in oxygen
Bond Energy Is the energy required to break one mole of covalent bonds and to separate the neutral atoms completely from each other
The heat of neutralisation Is the heat change when one mole of H+ ions from an acid reacts with one mole of OH- ions from a base
A homologous series - a series of compounds of uniform chemical type - Show gradations in physical properties - Has a general formula for its members -Each member has a similar method of preparation - Each member differs from the previous member by one CH2 unit
Structural Isomers Compounds with the same molecular formula but a different structural formulas
An Aliphatic Compound An organic compound that consists of of open chains of carbon atoms and closed chains compounds that resemble them in physical properties
Aromatic Compounds Compounds that contain the Benzene ring structure in their molecules
The Octane number Is a measure of the tendency of a fuel to resist knocking.
Catalytic Cracking The breaking down of long-chain hydrocarbon molecules into short-chain molecules for which there is more demand.
Reforming The use of catalysts to form ring compounds
Heat liberation formula Heat liberated= m x c x (t2-t1)
The heat of formation The heat change that takes place when one mole of a compound in its standard state is formed from its elements in their standard states.
Heat of Reaction The heat change when the numbers of moles of reactants indicated in the balanced reaction react completely
Heat of Combustion The heat change when one mole of a substance is completely burned in excess oxygen
The kilogram calorific value of a fuel The heat change when one kilogram of the substance is completely burned in oxygen
Bond Energy The energy required to separate one mole of covalent bonds and to separate the neutral atoms completely from each other
The Heat of Neutralisation The heat change when one mole of H+ ions from an acid react with one mole of OH- ions from a base
Hess's Law If a chemical reaction takes place in a number of stages, the sum of the heat changes in the separate stages is equal to the heat change if the reaction is carried out in one stage
The Law of Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed but can only be changed from one form of energy into another
An unsaturated compound A compound that contains at least one double, triple or multiple bond. Very reactive as a result. Undergoes addition.
Created by: FROmine