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Chapter 25

Chapter 25, Nuclear Chemistry: vocab and key ideas

QuestionAnswer
What does the term radioactivity refer to? the spontaneous emission of rays or particles from certain elements.
What are the rays and particles emmitted from a raidoactive source called? nuclear radiation.
Define the word satble: constant or not likely to change
Nuclear reactions begin with what? radioisotopes.
What are radioisotopes? unstable isotopes.
Unlike chemical reactions, nuclear reactions are _____ affected by temperature, pressure, and the presense of a catalyst. not
Can nuclear reactions of a given isotope be slowed down or sped up? no.
What are the three types of nuclear radiation? alpha radiation, beta radiation, and gamma radiation.
An electron resultiong from the breaking apart of a nuetron in an atom is called what? beta particle.
The symbol for an electron has a subscript __ and a superscript ____. -1 and 0
What is a gamma ray? A high-energy photon emmitted by a radioisotope.
Do gamma rays have mass and elecrical charge? no.
Gamma rays are very ______. And can easily pass throught the human body, wood and paper. penetrating
All atomic nuclei (excepy hydrogen) consists of what? neutrons and two or more photons.
What is nuclear force? an attractive force that acts between ALL nuclear particles that are close together, such as protons and nuetrons in the nuecleus.
What is the band of stabillity? a graph of the number of neutrons vs. the number protons for all known stable nuclei.
Above atomic number 20, stable nuclei have ___ neutrons than protons. more
The neutron-to-ptoton ration in a radioisotope determines what? the type of decay that occurs.
What is a positron? a particle with the mass of an electron but with a positive charge.
When a proton is converted to a neutron, the atomic number decreases and increases by what? 1
All nuclei that have an atmoc number greater than 83 are what? radioactive
What is a half life? the time required for one-half of the nuclei in a radioisotope sample to decay to products.
During each half life, half of the remaining radioactive atoms decay into what? atoms of a new element.
How long can half lives be? as sort as seconds or as long as billions of years.
Created by: jmhschemistry