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All of Chapter 19

Acids and Bases (Chemistry)

Acid a compound that produces hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Chemical Formula usually HX(X = monatomic or polyatomic ion). Chemical formula = H+
Base a compound that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Bases are named as if they were ionic compounds (the name of the cation followed by the name of the anion).
Hydroxide Ion A water molecule that loses a hydrogen ion and thus becomes negatively charged. Hydroxide ions are denoted OH-. (Do not conf. with hydronium ion)
Hydronium Ion A water molecule that gains a hydrogen ion and thus becomes positively charged. Hydronium ions are denoted H3O+. (Do not conf. with hydroxide ion)
Self-Ionization the reaction in which two water molecules react to give ions (for water.) The reaction is written as dissociation.
Neutral Solution any aqueous solution in which [H+] and [OH-] are equal. For example pure water is a neutral substance. pH = 7.0 ([H+] = 1.0 x 10-7 mol/L)
Ion Production Constant for Water The product of the concentrations of the hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in water. It is denoted as Kw.
Acidic Solution When the [H+] is greater than the [OH-]. Thus, the [H+] of an acidic solution is always greater than 1.0 x 10-7 mol/L. (don’t mix up with basic)
Basic Solution When the [H+] is less than the [OH-]. Thus, the [H+] of an acidic solution is always less than 1.0 x 10-7 mol/L. (don’t mix up with Acidic)
Alkaline Solutions another name for a basic solution.
pH the negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration. pH=-log[H+]. Always express in scientific notation.
Svante Arrhenius’s Theory (1887) Said that acids are compounds containing hydrogen that ionize to yield hydrogen ions (H+) in aqueous solution. In addition he said, bases are compounds that ionize to yield hydroxide ions (OH-) in aqueous solution.
Monoprotic Acid any acid that contains one ionizable hydrogen. An example is Nitric Acid (HNO3). (conf. diprotic and triprotic)
Diprotic Acid any acid that contains two ionizable protons. An example is Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4). (conf. monoprotic and triprotic)
Triprotic any acid that contains three ionizable protons. An example is Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4). (conf. monoprotic and diprotic)
Bronsted’s-Lowry’s Theory the theory defines an acid as a hydrogen-ion donor. As well a base is a hydrogen-ion acceptor. All of the acids and bases included in Arrenius theory are also acids and bases according to the Bronsted-Lowry theory.
Hydrogen-ion donor a compound that produces hydrogen ions in solution, is a hydrogen-ion donor, or an electron- pair acceptor. (Conf. Hydrogen-ion acceptor)
Hydrogen-ion Acceptor a compound that produces hydroxide ions in solution, is a hydrogen-ion acceptor, or an electron-pair donor. (Conf. Hydrogen-ion donor)
Conjugate Acid the particle formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion.
Conjugate Base the particle that remains when an acid has donated a hydrogen ion.
Conjugate Acid-Base Pair two substances that are related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion.
Amphoteric a substance that can act as both an acid and a base. Water is amphoteric.
Indicator a weak acid or base that undergoes dissociation in a known pH range. In this range the acid (or base) is a different color from its conjugate base (or acid).
Lewis Acid a substance that can accept a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond. Theory was founded by Gilbert Lewis.
Lewis Base a substance that can donate a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond.
Created by: Wackyhoops
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