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Grammar Definitions

English Grammar Definitions

clause with verb which is inflected for time, person and number finite clause
clause with verb which is not inflected infinite clause
embedded clause, cannot stand on itself dependent clause
clause can stand by itself independent clause
clause functioning as subject or object or the like nominal clause
dependent clause with conjunction (time, place, concession etc) adverbial clause
only used with "be" existential "there"
thing or person defined, no commas restrictive clause
extra information about thing or person, often with commas non-restrictive clause
clause without relative pronoun, however, dependent reduced clause
omission of words normally part of a clause elliptical clause
verbs that take an object transitive
verbs that don't take an object intransitive
verbs that take only a direct object monotransitive
verbs that take both a direct and an indirect object ditransitive
infinitive without infinitive marker "to" bare infinitive
it, there preliminary subject
that, but, when subordinating conjunctions
and, as well as coordinating conjunctions
cataphoric referring to sth mentioned earlier
anaphoric referring to sth to mention later
normal phrase with verb in indicative declarative sentence
questions, speech act expecting an answer interrogative sentence
relative clause which, who
tense present, past
aspect progressive
voice active, passive
copular, linking verbs is, seem
new information later in the sentence end focus
new information earlier in the sentence fronting
verb followed by adverb phrasal verb
verb combined with noun and prepostion prepositional verb
i.a. indefinite article
d.a. definite article
operators all modal verbs, have, be, do
really? backchannel
don't you? tag question
imperative sentence don't need a subject
exclamative sentence how pretty you look
expletive sentence swearing
subjunctive sentence does not observe person or number
known info first, unknown info next end-weight principle
object can never begin with preposition (idioms)
it is Jamie for whom we are looking, what he wanted to buy was a Fiat. (main clause including dependent clause, key Words "it" and "WHO" etc) cleft-sentences
Created by: SimoneHauptmann



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