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CHEM 183 MT1

QuestionAnswer
Who discovered chloroform and around what time? James Simpson 1847
What chemical compound does a polyester bottle harbour? Antimony
Nowadays, what is the smallest ratio (example: part per billion) detectable by laboratory machines? Part per trillion
What does ADI stands for? What does it mean? Acceptable Daily Intake. The lowest dose taken each day for your whole life without developing any problems.
What does NOAEL stands for? No Observed Adverse Effect Level
How do scientist calculate the ADI? NOAEL / 100
Definition of Hazard Fixed property that cannot be altered
Definition of Risk Risk = Hazard x Exposure x Vulnerability x Toxicity
What does URARI mean? He to whom it comes, falls
Who saw the monkey killed by the 'Three tree' poison? Sir Walter Raleigh
What vine does the URARI (Curare) comes from? Chondodendron tomentosum
What did Charles Waterton realize in 1810's? Realized that Curare in the right dose could cause muscle relaxation without death
Who realized that Curare, in the appropriate dose, could be a muscle relaxant without killing the patient? Charles Waterton in 1812
What did Claude Bernard understood about the Curare mechanism? (1840's) That it blocks the nerve impulses from the brain to the muscles.
What is the name of the chemical molecule of Curare? Tubocuranine
What did Dr. Harold Griffith did? He was the first physician to use Curare to relax the muscles of a patient undergoing a surgery
Who was the first physician to use Curare to relax the muscles of a patient undergoing an appendectomy in 1940's? Dr. Harold Griffith
Who did something so amazing that we started calling pre X era and post X era? Dr. Harold Griffith; Pre Griffith era and post Griffith era.
What is the name of the synthetic upgrade of Curare? Pavulon
Which compounds are used in the death penalty? Sodium thiopentol (sleep), Pavulon (breath), Potassium chloride (heart)
When was liquid sulfanilamide put on the market? 1930's
What did Harold Watkins do? He was the chemist that used diethylene glycol as sulfanilamide's solvent. He committed suicide when he heard what his product did to the population.
Who was the scientist that used diethylene glycol as a solvent? Harold Watkins
What is Kemps Basalm? Kind of remedy used during the 1911 flu but not very useful.
What is the Trypanosoma cruzi? It is the scientific name of the parasite of the kissing disease or Chagas Disease.
How can we control a Trypanosoma Cruzi? Ingest a molecule that suppresses a cysteine protease, crucial for the parasite
Who was Sir William Osler? Started medical education in North America with McGill and John Hopkins. Listen to the patient, he will tell you the diagnosis (1870's)
What is a Drug? Chemical agent that affects living matter
What are smelling salts made of? Ammonium Carbonate
Who were the two doctors know for writing about the practice of medicine, in the 1130's - 1200's? Avicenna and Maimonides
What is ABT-594 and where can we find it? It is a compound 200 times more effective than morphine at preventing pain, is non-addictive. Found on Panamanian frog.
Who was Jakob Bohme? Established the Doctrine of Signatures, influenced by Hegel and Schopenhauer
What is a Bezoar Stone and what was it cured? It is kidney stones from goats and apparently cured Black Plague.
Name one emetic and say what it does? Ipecac, induces vomiting instantaneously.
Why is Aconite known? Because it was the poison used in Romeo and Juliet.
What is used for failing heart (CHF) and is derived from foxglove plant? Digoxin
What did William Withering published? 'A botanical arrangement of all the vegetables growing in Great Britain' and the first medical articles ever on the foxglove
Where does Quinine comes from and why is it used? It is an alkaloid that comes from the bark and leafs of the Cinchona plant and is used against Malaria.
What did Pelletier and Caventou do? They were the 1rst to efficiently purify Quinine from Cinchona bark
To what is DDT toxic? To Birds, it causes bird eggs to crack prematurely.
What is the other name for Syphilis? 'The Great Pox' 1490's
What did Samuel Hahnemann do? Proposed the essence and foundation of Homeopathy
Who purified morphine at the start of the 1800'th century? Friedrich Serturner
What did Joseph Lister brought to the medical knowledge? He first started spraying phenol in the air during an operation to reduce infections, but switched it to washing hands and wearing gloves. Named Listerine after him.
Who was the man that McGill named the Roddick Gate after? He introduced Antisepsis in Canada
From what molecule structure is phenol has many differences? Thymol (desinfectant), Propophol (milk of amnesia) and BHT (antioxydant)
What was Salicylic acid used for and what was his main problem? Was used in acne solution and warts and his main problem was stomach irritation
Who is Felix Hoffman? In the 1890's, he discovered the aspirin for his dad because he had arthritis and found that salicylic acid was bitter sweet.
What does COX stand for? CyclOoXygenase
What are prostaglandin? Pain messenger
Who was John Vane? He was the scientist that gain a Nobel Prize for explaining the prostaglandin's mechanism
What does NSAID stands for? Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
What is the other name for acetaminophen? Paracetamol
What is rofecoxib? Also called Vioxx, it is an anti-inflammatory drug that is COX-2 selecting but increases the risks of heart disease
What is the opposite of the Placebo effect? The Nocibo effect
Who was Joseph Priestley? He used laughing gaz
What did Crawford Williamson do in the 1840's? He succeeded the first sirurgie with anaesthetics (2 tumors) but published his findings only 6 years after.
What did Horace Wells used as an anaesthetic? Laughing gas (N2O)
What was the name and the other name given by William T. G. Morton to his anaesthetic? He used ether but named it Letheon
Who was John Collins Warren? Most famous surgeon of USA. Realized a successful operation using ether as anaesthetic.
Why was there a controversy over Queen Victoria in the 1850's? She got anaesthetize by John Snow when giving birth to her 8th children.
What is Fentanyl? It is an intravenous anaesthetic 100 times more powerful than morphine and possess a half-life time of 5h
Created by: TheRuch