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History Exam 1

Multiple Choice

The chapter tells the story of Benjamin Montgomery to make the point that for former slaves to attain meaningful lives a free citizens, they would need economic power, which, in turn, required political power
According to your text, what two issues lay at the heart of Reconstruction? the future of political and economic power for African Americans, and the future of North-South economic and political relations
During the war, congressional leaders felt that Lincoln's plan ________, so they passed ________. was too lenient; the more stringent Wade-Davis bill, which Lincoln vetoed
Both Lincoln's and Johnson's Reconstruction plans shared an intent to liberally grant pardons to Confederate soldiers.
The Radical Republicans in Congress approached Reconstruction with each of the following convictions EXCEPT that to heal the nation, the South should be treated with generosity and compassion.
The southern response to war's end and Johnson's program of Reconstruction indicated despair and defiance
Under new president Andrew Johnson, presidential Reconstruction made it possible for former high-ranking Confederates to assume positions of power in the reconstructed southern governments
Which of the following is NOT true about the Radical-dominated Reconstruction Congress? Its influence waned when northern voters repudiated Radical congressmen at the polls in 1866.
The central issue that divided Johnson and congressional Radicals was the future place of African Americans in U.S. society
The North interpreted black codes as evidence that the South sought to keep freedmen in an economically dependent and legally inferior status
The southern governments, as initially reconstituted after the war, alarmed northern public opinion for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that they were blatantly corrupt and wasteful in spending tax dollars
What won the support of congressional moderates for the Radical program? the president's uncompromising veto of a civil rights bill
Which of the following did the congressional Reconstruction program enacted 1866-1867 NOT provide for? a land reform measure that would grant small tracts of farmland to deserving freedmen
The Second Confiscation Act of 1862 had authorized the government to seize and sell the property of supporters of the rebellion; however, President Johnson ruled that the law applied only to wartime
The Fifteenth Amendment expanded suffrage
Andrew Johnson narrowly avoided conviction on impeachment charges because some Republicans feared that removal would set a bad precedent for using impeachment as a political weapon against the presidency
Which of the following most accurately explains the meaning of the refusal of Congress to convict Johnson? The power of the Radicals in Congress was waning
African Americans who held political office in southern Reconstruction governments generally were educated professionals, independent landowners, or otherwise from the ranks of black elites
What is true about southern economic redevelopment? Republican-dominated Reconstruction governments sought to encourage southern industry
One measure of black efforts to experience freedom was the adoption of a surname.
Which of the following was illumined by the text as a familial problem faced by some African Americans after they were freed? having multiple spouses
After emancipation, the most important institutions for African Americans as they tried to establish their own independent family and community life were the schools and the churches
In the years after the Civil War, many freedmen ended up working as farmers under a sharecropper system
"Sharecropping" means returning a fraction of the harvest to the landowner as rent
Most new textile workers in the South were poor and white
What is the best explanation for why tenancy became widespread in the South? A shortage of cash and credit made land ownership difficult
At the center of southern life was the church
The text makes the point that southern rural folk sought stability and social order in religion
To what does the term "Jim Crow" refer? a system of legalized separation of blacks as socially inferior
Who were the Redeemers? white Democrats vowing to end Republican rule
Taos of New Mexico believed that each spring the pregnant earth issued new life. Which of the following is a custom they followed with respect to this belief? unshod their horses
The earlier federal Indian policy of "concentration" (deemed a failure by the 1880s) sought to limit the hunting grounds of many tribes
What was the difference between the racial labor identities of California and Texas? California had Asian Americans, where Texas did not.
The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 proved destructive because it attacked the communal structure of tribal life
Labor in the construction of the California section of the transcontinental railroad was supplied by Chinese Workers
How were the cities of the urban West different than the cities of the East? They grew outward instead of upward.
By 1887 Congress had become so alarmed at foreign ownership of western land that it enacted the Alien Land Law
The text stresses that the late-1800s phase of industrialization brought about not only corporations of great size but also a national network of complex systems of industry, invention, and information
The first "big business" in America, at least in terms of finance, labor relations, and management, was the railroad industry
What company did J. Pierpont Morgan create when he merged nine competing steel manufacturers into one? United States Steel Corporation
Which is a true statement about forms of business organization? The trust was a device to enlarge corporate power by jointly controlling and managing once-competing firms through a central board of directors
From where did the bulk of the manpower come, to work in the many new factories? both from the rural areas of America and Europe
The ________ was an essential system undergirding the rise of big business; it was itself big business; it was a cultural symbol of American industrialization; and it was a stimulus to other enterprises because it consumed so many natural resources. railroad system
Which of the following, according to critics of industrial capitalism, was a "cost of doing business"? concentrated power
Serving as financial advisers to railroads, the ________ often eventually found themselves taking control. investment bankers
Which of the following was a union benefit the railroad "brotherhoods" provided their members prior to the Civil War? insurance
A true social Darwinist like William Graham Sumner would accept business bankruptcies
Which of the following advocated what was referred to as "social Darwinism"? Herbert Spencer
Who advocated what he called a "single tax"? Henry George
The American Federation of Labor was comparatively successful because it stressed gradual, concrete gains for its members
What statement about the workers' world of the 1880s and 1890s is true? Each year, industrial mishaps injured over 500,000 workers
What does the text mean by asserting that certain jobs were "feminized"? Males tended to no longer pursue certain professional occupations once women entered them in significant numbers.
For ordinary workers to affect the industrial order, they had to develop their own kind of integrated system. Specifically, they had to pursue unionization
The ________ prescribed not only an economic system, but a Protestant moralistic social plan. Knights of Labor
Which statement about the American Federation of Labor is true? The AFL, a combination of craft unions, stressed concrete, practical economic gains
Which is an accurate statement about demographic trends in the late nineteenth century? The proportion of Americans living in cities rose
Which of the following statements about late nineteenth-and early twentieth-century immigrants is NOT true? Most were skilled urban workers
Which of the following statements about late nineteenth-and early twentieth-century immigrants is NOT true? Most were Protestants.
In late nineteenth-century American cities the middle and upper classes lived in the newer outer suburbs.
Before the 1880s, most immigrants came from ________; after the 1880s, most immigrants came from ________. northern and western Europe; southern and eastern Europe
What was the primary solution to the realization that cities could hardly survive, let alone grow, without improved transportation? electric streetcars
The urban political machines stayed in power in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century because they effectively provided needed services to the poorer city dwellers.
Which of the following is an accurate statement about the urban bosses? They both served and exploited the people of the city.
A new experiment in providing social services to slum dwellers featured centers where middle-class women lived among the poor, provided amenities, and taught American ways to immigrants. These were called settlement houses
Evidence justifying the use of the label "politics of paralysis" to describe the American political system during the late nineteenth century includes all of the following EXCEPT that . the period was marked by relatively low voter turnout
Which party tended to support a program of active federal support for economic growth, including high tariffs? Republicans
What was the "bloody shirt"? a rhetorical symbol used by Republicans and Democrats to blame each other for the Civil War
The first modern governmental reform law, the Pendleton Act of 1883 enacted in response to the assassination of President Garfield, provided for civil service merit standards and procedures for government jobs
Farmer frustrations that fueled the rise of the People's party included all of the following EXCEPT inflation
The ________ was created in response to the Supreme Court's ruling in Munn v. Illinois and set an important precedent in establishing a right for federal government to regulate private corporations. Interstate Commerce Commission
In the years surrounding 1890, an innovative program of self-help spearheaded by the Southern Alliance movement flourished, though on the whole the effort, known as "________," failed. cooperatives
The election of 1892 was especially significant because the Democrats won both houses of Congress
What is the best explanation of "free silver"? The U.S. government would promote prosperity by inflating the money supply through minting all the silver offered to it.
Coxey's Army descended on Washington to demand a program to employ the jobless
Above all, the depression of the 1890s demonstrated the inability of the nation's political system to smooth out the economic cycle of boom and bust.
As a result of the depression of 1893, new attitudes toward poverty and government responsibility emerged
The Southwest had a distinct and complex development; just as the southern economy relied on the labor of African Americans, the Southwest grew on the labor of: Chinese
Former slaves who followed reports of better opportunities to the promised land of Kansas were nicknamed Exodusters
Created by: 152174