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AQA A1 Fuels

AQA Fract Distill, fuels and Combustion

QuestionAnswer
Describe the difference between an AlkAne and an AlkEne Alkane have only single C-C bonds whilst Alkenes have at least one double C=C bond
Write the balanced equation for the COMPLETE combustion of Hexane C6H14 + 6.5 O2 --> 6 CO2 + 7 H2O It is quite fine to use .5 of a mole!
Write the balanced equation for the COMPLETE combustion of Hexanol C6H13OH + 6 O2 --> 6 CO2 + 7H2O when you were balancing the Oxygen atoms, did you remember that the Alcohol already brings 1 Oxygen atom?
Name 3 ways of making a fuel more efficient isomerisation, reforming, shortening chain
What is isomerisation? 2 chemicals with same molecular formula but different arrangement of the atoms
What is a catalyst (4 points)? speeds up reactions, without getting used up (mass stays same), by lower activation energy and taking an alternative reaction pathway
What is HETEROGENEOUS catalyst? when the reactants and the catalyst are in different states
Describe how a heterogeneous catalyst works? reactants form BONDS with surface of catalyst (aDsorbtion), BONDS WITHIN reactants weaken/break; new BONDS BETWEEN reactants form; BONDS PRODUCTS-SURFACE weaken and products DESORB Note: it is all about BONDS!!! Check you write aDsorbtion not aBsorbtion
How is this pollutant formed? CO INCOMPLETE combustion of fossil fuels, when Oxygen is in short supply
How is this pollutant formed? CO2 COMPLETE combustion of fossil fuels, when Oxygen is in excess
How is this pollutant formed? particulates INCOMPLETE combustion of fossil fuels, when Oxygen is in short supply
How is this pollutant formed? NO in HOT engine when oxygen FROM THE AIR reacts with Nitrogen FROM THE AIR
How is this pollutant formed? NO2 Further oxidation of the NO
How is this pollutant formed? SO2 combustion/oxidation of impurities found in Fossil fuels
What is a catalyst poison? a chemical that binds permanently to teh surface of the catalyst; preventing reactants to bind
Describe the cracking experiment vapours of a long chain alkane are passed over a HOT aluminium oxide catalysts
Write the balanced equation for the cracking of Hexane C6H14 --> C2H4 + C4H10
What is Carcking? A long chain hydrocarbon has been broken into two smaller molecules: a smaller alkane and an alkene
Write the balanced equation for the reforming of Hexane C6H14 --> C6H12 + H2
What is reforming? formation of a benzene ring
Write the balanced equation for the isomerisation of Hexane Hexane --> Methyl-2 Pentane
What does TEACUPS stand for? Transport Energy Availibility Cost usable Pollution Safety
Which fuel has the highest energy density? Hydrogen
Which fuel can make engines corrode? Ethanol
Explain how fractional distillation works, in terms of intermolecular forces LONGER chains of Hydrocarbons have a higher b.p. because there are more points of CONTACT between molecules so the VdW forces BETWEEN MOLECULES will be stronger so it will take more ENERGY to separate the molecules.
Explain why branched Alkanes have a lower b.p. than the straight chain isomer, in terms of intermolecular forces STRAIGHTER chains of Hydrocarbons have a higher b.p. because there are more points of CONTACT between molecules so the VdW forces BETWEEN MOLECULES will be stronger so it will take more ENERGY to separate the molecules. Also less packing=less VdW
What is the effect of CO2 on the environment? Enhanced Greenhouse effect
What is the effect of CO on the environment? Toxic gas
What is the effect of NOx on the environment? Dissolves in WATER in clouds to produce Nitric Acid, part of Acid Rain
What is the effect of SO2 on the environment? Dissolves in WATER in clouds to produce Sulfuric Acid, part of Acid Rain
Why do are Rhodium and Platinum catalysts placed on a honeycomb structure in a catalytic converter? To provide a larger surface area
Why does Petroleum Industry uses reformation, cracking and isomerisation? To make fuels more efficient
What is the equation to show how a catalytic converter converts NO and CO into harmless gases 2 NO + 2CO --> 2 CO2 + N2 Did you get the formula of Nitrogen gas correct?
Write the equation for the INCOMPLETE combustion of Hexane to produce Carbon Monoxide and Water only C6H14 + 6.5 O2 --> 6 CO + 7 H2O
What is a biofuel? A fuel made from part of a plant or animal waste
Why do Alcohol, such as Ethanol, burn more efficiently? There is already an Oxygen in the molecule of Ethanol
State advantages of using biofuels compared to Fossil Fuels Biofuels use renewable resources; they burn more efficiently; they are Carbon-Neutral; Saves finite resources (Crude Oil) for other purposes (making plastics)
State disadvantages of using biofuels compared to Fossil Fuels Land is needed for growing crops for biofuels: this may lead to deforestation; or that land is not cultivated for food: which in turn can lead to food shortages and food prices going up; the process of making biofuel is not exactly Carbon-Neutral
What is the name of the process by which biofuel/Ethanol is produced from Sugar cane? Fermentation
What are the conditions for fermentation? Yeast at a temperature between 25-45C; anaerobic (without Oxygen)
What is the equation for the fermentation process? C6H12O6 --> 2CO2 + 2C2H5OH
Why is the process of making biofuel not completely Carbon-Neutral? Energy is needed for distillation process , transport of the raw materials to the factory
What is the SOLID chemical formed by incomplete combustion? Carbon
What is the hazard linked to soot/carbon/particulates produced during incomplete combustion? irritates the lungs
One mole of an ALkane is cracked: two moles of Ethene, one mole of But-1-ene and one mole of octane are produced. What is the molecular formula of the AlkAne? C16H34 (ALWAYS write the equation in the margin or rough paper)
What is the metal used in catalytic converter? Platinum
Why is the boiling point of a straight-chain alkane higher than the corresponding branched isomer? 1)Chains can move closer together/more points of contact; 2) higher VdW BETWEEN molecules; 3) more energy needed to break APART the MOLECULES
What is the equation for the formation of Nitric Acid from Nitrogen Dioxide? 2 NO2 + H2O + 1/2 O2 --> 2HNO3 ; NOTE that there is Oxygen involved!
What is the equation for the neutralisation of Sulfuric Acid by Calcium Carbonate? H2SO4 + CaCO3 --> CaSO4 + H2O + CO3
What is the equation for the neutralisation of Sulfur Dioxide by Calcium Carbonate? SO2 + CaCO3 + 1/2 O2 --> CaSO4 + CO2 NOTE that there is Oxygen involved!
Created by: UrsulineChem