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Organic Compounds

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acid

TermDefinition
Hydrocarbons Carbon covalently bonded with Hydrogen.
Derivative Hydrocarbons Carbon, Hydrogen and another element
Carbohydrates -Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen -sugars and starches, with most made by plants.
Isomers Organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures.
Monosaccharide -Simple sugars
Pentose sugars 5 Carbon sugars in Monosaccharides. Found in DNA and RNA.
Hexose sugars 6 Carbon sugars in Monosacchardies. Found in Glucose and Fructose.
Glucose C6H12O6, blood sugar; made from carbs, proteins, and fats.
Fructose C6H12O6. Found in fruits and honey
Galactose C6H12O6. Monomer in milk sugar.
Disaccharides 2 simple sugars chemically bound together by a dehydration/condensation reaction.
Sucrose Glucose and Fructose a.k.a table salt. Found in sugar cane and beats.
Maltose Glucose and Glucose a.k.a malt sugar. Found in fermented to make alcoholic beverages.
Lactose Glucose and Galactose a.k.a milk sugar.
Polysaccharides consists of many monomers chemically bonded together by a condensation reaction.
Starch Made by plants, using hundreds of units of Glucose. Used as a sweetener, preservative, and to add texture.
Glycogen "animal starch" and used a energy reserves
Cellulose Forms the outer layer of the cell walls in plants.
Chitin Forms the exoskeleton of insects and crustaceans and the cell wall of fungi.
Lipids Derivative of Hydrocarbons and contains COOH, found in the fatty acids.
Neutral (simple) fats a.k.a triglycerides, generally found in the diet and body.
Saturated has more Hydrogen, solid at room temperature, is from animal fats and has cholesterol.
Unsaturated has less Hydrogen, liquid at room temperature, is from plant oils and does not have cholesterol.
Transfats Hydrogenated oils processed to increase hydrogen double bonds without the kinks.
Phospholipid Second type of lipids, has a hydrophilic, and polar head and a hydrophobic, non-polar tail.
Steroids Soluable in benzene. Found in Testosterone, Estrogen and adrenal hormones, Vitamin D, Bile acids, and cholesterol.
Proteins have Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen. Main component of tissues and body parts along with regulatory functions and neurotransmitters
Amino Acids Monomers of proteins that are small enough to enter the cell.
Peptide Bonds Joins amino acids together between COOH and NH2 groups.
Primary Structures "spells the protein" and consists on a number of polypeptide chains.
Secondary Structures 3-dimensional structures
Tertiary Structures 3-dimensional foldings that form a globular or spherical shape. EX, enzymes, blood proteins and anti-bodies.
Quaternary Structures Huge proteins with multiple globular proteins. EX, hemoglobin
Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA
DNA confined to the nucleus; forms the genes on the chromosomes. Small amounts are also found in organelles.
RNA Formed in the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm. Moves the ribosoms and directs protein synthesis.
Monomers of Nucleic Acids Guanine, Adenine, Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil
Created by: McGillygilly