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Chem 110 Chap 1-2

Book: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach by Nivaldo J. Tro

What is Chemistry? The study of stuff. How matter / molecules interact with each other.
Describe the scientific method. - Observation - Hypothesis - Experiment - Conclusion (Repeat to refine hypothesis)
What is a scientific Law? A mathematical description of the behavior of nature Useful in making predictions. Examples: Ideal gas law, theory of relativity, thermal dynamics (law of conservation of energy)
What is a scientific Theory? Describes the reasoning behind a corresponding scientific law.
What is Matter? Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.
Name the three normal states of matter. Solids, liquids, and gases.
Name some exotic states of matter?. Bose Einstein Condensate - exits for only less than 100 atoms and at 10^-18 K, which is an extremely low temperature. Plasma - in air around lightning, plasma screen tv's, made of positive ions and electrons that are not bound together.
What is a hypothesis? An educated guess based on observations.
What is an atom? submicroscopic particles that constitute the fundamental building blocks of ordinary matter.
What is a molecule? atoms that are bound - have bonded - together in a specific geometric shape.
Describe Scientific Knowledge. Scientific approach to knowledge is empirical Based on observation and experiment.
Observations lead scientists to formulate what? Hypothesis - a tentative interpretation or explanation of the observations.
What is an experiment? A highly controlled procedure designed to generate observations that may confirm or refute a hypothesis. Sometimes causes hypothesis to be changed.
State the Law of Conservation of Mass. In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed.
What is a scientific Theory? One or more well-established hypotheses may form the basis for a scientific theory. A scientific theory is a model for the way nature is and tries to explain not merely what nature does, but why.
Describe matter in solid form. Atoms or molecules are packed close to each other in fixed locations.
Describe a crystalline solid. Molecules or atoms are in patterns with long-range, repeating orders.
Describe an amorphous solid. Its atoms or molecules do not have long-range order. Glass and plastic are examples of amorphous.
Describe matter in liquid form. Liquid matter, atoms or molecules pack about as closely as they do in solids, but they are free to move relative to each other, giving liquids a fixed volume but not a fixed shape. They assume the shape of containers. Water.
Describe matter in gaseous form. Atoms or molecules have a lot of space between them and are free to move relative to one another, making gases compressible. Gases assume shape and volume of their container.
What is a pure substance? A pure substance is made up of only one component and its composition is invariant. (It does not vary from one sample to another).
What is a mixture? Is composed of two or more components in proportions that can vary from one sample to another.
Pure substances can be categorized further. How? Into elements and compounds.
What is a heterogeneous mixture? One in which the composition varies from one region of mixture to another. Made up of distinct regions.
What is a homogeneous mixture? They have uniform compositions because the atoms or molecules that compose them mix uniformly.
Why are mixtures separable? Because the different components have different physical or chemical properties.
What is decanting? Carefully pouring off the water into another container.
What is distillation? A mixture is heated to boil off a more volatile (easily vaporizable liquid). The volatile liquid is then recondensed in a condenser and collected in a separate flask.
What is filtration? A mixture is poured through filter paper in a funnel.
What is a physical change? The atoms or molecules that compose a substance do not change their identity during a physical change. Physical changes only alter the state or appearance, but not composition.
What is a chemical change? During a chemical change, atoms rearrange, transforming the original substance into a different substance. Rusting of iron is a good example.
What are the seven basic SI units? m - meter, kg - kilogram, s - second, A-ampere, K-kelvin thermodynamic temperature, mol-mole, cd - candela,
What is a physical property? A physical property is a property that a substance displays without changing its composition. The smell of gasoline is a physical property.
What is a chemical property? A chemical property is a property that a substance displays only by changing its composition via chemical change. Burning gasoline. Corrosiveness, flammability, acidity, toxicity, and other such characteristics.
What is the scientific definition of engery? The capacity to do work.
What is work? Work is defined as the action of force through a distance.
What is total energy? Sum of its kinetic energy.
Define potential energy. The energy associated with its position or composition. Ex. A weight sitting several meters above the ground has potential energy due to its position within the earth's gravitation field.
Define thermal energy. The energy associated with the temperature of an object. - This is actually a type of kinetic energy. Because of the association with motion of the individual atoms or molecules that make up an object.
State the law of conservation of energy. Energy is neither created nor destroyed.
An object with high potential energy is unstable. Why? Because of the tendency of systems with high potential energy to change in a way that lowers their potential energy. Gasoline is an example with high potential energy. Once combusted, it is stable and has low.
What is water's freezing temperature in C, K, and F? Celcius is 0.00, F is 32, Kelvin is 273.
What prefix multiplier is 10^3? kilo , k
What is the prefix multiplier for deci? 10^-1 , d
What is the prefix multiplier for nano? 10^-9 , n
What is the prefix multiplier for mega? 10^6 , M
What is the prefix multiplier for centi? 10^-2 , c
What is the prefix multiplier for milli? 10^-3 , m
What is the prefix multiplier for micro? 10^-6 , beta sign
What is the prefix multiplier for pico? 10^-12, p
What is the prefix multiplier for femto? 10^-15
What is the prefix multiplier for milli? 10^-3 , m
What is the prefix multiplier for micro? 10^-6 , beta sign
What is the prefix multiplier for pico? 10^-12, p
What is the prefix multiplier for femto? 10^-15, f
What is a derived unit? A derived unit is a combination of other units. Meters/s for speed.
What is volume? Volume is a measure of space. Any unit of length, when cubed, becomes a unit of volume. The cubic meter, cubic centimeter, the cubic millimeter, all volume.
Describe density mathematically. Density = M/V (mass over volume). An intensive property.
Describe an intensive property. A property that is independent of the amount of substance. An example is density.
Describe an extensive property. A property that depends on the amount of the substance. An example is mass.
What are exact numbers? Exact numbers have no uncertainty and thus do not limit the number of significant figures in any calculation. 3 atoms is an exact number. Number of centimeters in one meter is an exact number. Integral numbers that are a part of equations.
What are significant figures? Those numbers that are not simply place holders--marking decimal place--are significant figures.
What is accuracy? Refers to how close the measured value is to the actual value.
What is precision? Precision refers to how close a series of measurements are to one another or how reproducible they are.
When converting units, which goes on the top of the ratio, and which goes on the bottom? Units we are converting from are in the denominator, and units we are converting to, are in the numerator. Starting quantity, times, To/from.
Name one way you can image an atom. Using scanning tunneling microscopy. Works by moving an extremely sharp electrode over a surface and measuring the resulting tunneling current.
What is the law of definite proportions? All compounds will always have the same proportions of their constituent element.
What is the law of constant composition? Water will always be water.
What is the law of multiple proportions? In an example: Mass of element B combined with 1 g of element A can be expressed as a ratio of small whole #'s.
What are 3 of John Dalton's 4 postulates on atomic theory? 1. Each elm is composed of tiny, indestructible particles called atoms. 2. All atoms of an elm have the same mass & other props that distinguish them from other atoms of other elms. 3. Atoms combine in simple whole# ratios to form compounds. 4th?
What is the fourth of John Dalton's postulate about atomic theory? Atoms in one element cannot change into atoms of another element. In a chemical reaction, atoms only change the way that they are bound together with other atoms.
Most of an atom's mass and positive charge are contained in the small core called the... Nucleus.
Most of the volume of the atom is _____ through which tiny, negatively charged electrons are dispersed. Empty Space
There are as many negatively charged _____ outside the nucleus as there are positively charged protons within the nucleus. This makes the atom electrically _______. electrons, neutral
What is a neutron? A neutron is a particle within the nucleus that has no electrical charge. Has the same mass as a proton though.
What is an isotope? Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.
Be (beryllium) and Al (Aluminum) have only one naturally occurring... Isotope
What is an atom's mass number? The sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atom. This is represented by symbol A. A = number of protons (p) + number of neutrons (n).
The symbol Z, in terms of elements, represents what property of an element? Z represents the atomic number of an element.
Hyphen notation of elements is... X-A (X being the chemical symbol and A being the mass number).
What is an ion? When atom loses, or gains an electron, it is called an ion.
When the chemical lithium (Li) loses an electron, how would you describe and write that chemical symbol? You should say that the ion is positively charged. LI^+ This is also known as a cation.
When the chemical Fluorine (F) gains an electron, how would you describe and write that chemical symbol? You should say that the ion is now negatively charged, since it has gained a negatively charged particle, the electron. F^-. This is also known as an anion.
What is an anion? Negatively charged particles are called anions.
What is a cation? A positively charged particle is called a cation.
What is order of magnitude estimations? This is done by focusing on the exponential part of numbers written in scientific notation. If a decimal part of a number is less than 5.. 4.36 x 10^5 becomes 10^5 and 2.7 x 10^-3 becomes 10^-3. If more than 5, -> 5.982 x 10^7 = 10 x 10^7 = 10^8
Describe general problem solving strategy. 1. Identify the starting point (info given). 2.Identify the end point (what must be found). 3. Devise a way to get from the starting point to the end point using the information given, or what you can look up. This is a conceptual plan.
What is a systematic error? Ex. If a balance is not properly calibrated this will result in a systematic error in recording data.
What is random error? Error that has equal probability of being too high or too low. When results are neither accurate or precise.
What is the periodic law? When the elements are arranged in order of increasing mass, certain sets of properties recur periodically.
We can broadly classify elements in the periodic table with what three names? Metals, nonmetals or metalloids.
Metals lie on what side of the periodic table? They lie on the lower left side and middle of the periodic table and share some common properties.
What properties do metals share? They are good conductors of heat and electricity, they can be pounded into flat sheets (malleability), they can be drawn into wires (ductility), they are often shiny, and tend to lose electrons in chemical changes.
Where on the periodic table do Nonmetals lie? They lie on the upper right side of the periodic table. The dividing line between metals and nonmetals is a zigzag diagonal line running from boron to astatine.
Nonmetals have varied properties--some are solids at room temp, others are liquids or gases--but as whole they tend to share what properties? They tend to be poor conductors of electricity and they all tend to gain electrons when they undergo chemical changes. Oxygen, carbon, sulfur.
What are the elements that lie along the zigzag diagonal line that divides metals and nonmetals? These are metalloids and they exhibit mixed properties.
Several metalloids are also classified as what? Give a few examples. Semiconductors. Because of their intermediate and highly temperature dependent electrical conductivity. Silicon, arsenic, antimony.
The periodic table can also be divided into what two other groups? Main-group elements - whose properties tend to be largely predictable based on their position in the periodic table, and transition elements or transition metals, whose properties tend to be less predictable based simply on their position on the per table
Main group elements are denoted on the periodic table by a... Number and letter A. 1A.
Transition elements are in columns labeled with a... A number and the letter B.
Column and group 8A on the periodic table pertains to... Noble gases. He is a noble gas. They are most not reactive (sharing properties).
Group 1A elements are called... Alkali metals. They are all reactive metals. Na, sodium.
Group 2A elements are called... Alkaline earth metals. These are also fairly reactive. Ca, calcium.
Group 7A elements are called.. The halogens. These are very reactive nonmetals. Chlorine is an example. Bromine.
Metals tend to lose... Electrons. Forming cations
Nonmetals tend to gain... Electrons. Forming anions
Describe the ionic behavior of main-group metal A main group metal tends to lose electrons, forming a cation with the same number of electrons as the nearest noble gas.
Describe the ionic behavior of a main-group nonmetal. A main-group nonmetal tends to gain electrons, forming an anion with the same number of electrons as the nearest noble gas.
The alkali metals, group 1A, tend to lose... One electron and form a 1+ ion.
The alkaline earth metals, group 2A, tend to lose... Two electrons and form 2+ ions.
The halogens, group 7A, tend to... Gain one electron and form a 1- ion.
The oxygen family nonmetals, group 6A, tend to... Gain two electrons and form 2- ions.
For main-group elements that form cations with a predictable charge, the charge is... Equal to the group number.
For main-group elements that form anions with a predictable charge, the charge is... Equal to the group number minus 8.
Regarding ions, Transition elements... May form various different ions with different charges.
How would you calculate the atomic mass of an element? Natural abundance percentages (in decimal form) multiplied by the amu given mass, added by another isotope of the given element in that is also multiplied by the given natural abundance percentage and mass. AM = NP(M amu) + NP(M amu) Two different iso.
How are the masses of atoms and percent abundances of isotopes of elements measured? they are measured using mass spectrometry. This technique separates particles according to their mass.
What is 1 mol equal to? What is this number called? 6.02214 x 10^23 particles. Avogradro's number. Usually rounded to the fourth sig fig, 6.022 x 10^23.
The value of one mole, mol, is... Equal to the number of atoms in exactly 12g of pure carbon-12 (12g C = 1 mol C atoms = 6.022 x 10^23
An element's molar mass in grams per mole is... Numerically equal to the element's atomic mass in atomic units.
1 mol of any element is always... 6.022x10^23 atoms.
The atomic mass is very close the mass of the... ..heaviest isotope which must provide the largest contribution to the weighted average mass.
Created by: aiur100