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Chemistry of Life 2

Chapter 2 Vocab

Atom The basic unit of matter
Nucleus The center of an atom, which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, structure that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA.
Electron Negatively charged particle, located in the space surrounding the nucleus.
Element Pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom.
Isotope one of several forms of a single elements, which contains the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
Compound Substance formed by the chemical combination of 2 or more elements in definite proportions
Ionic Bond Chemical bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
Ion Atom that has a positive or negative charge.
Covalent Bond A formation made by the moving electrons traveling around the nuclei of two atoms.
Molecule Smallest unit in most compounds that displays all the properties of that compound.
van der Waals Forces Slight attraction that develops between oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules.
Hydrogen Bond weak attraction between a hydrogen atom and another atom.
Cohesion Attraction between molecules of the same substance.
Adhesion Force of attraction between different kinds of molecules.
Mixture material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined.
Solution type of mixture in which all components are evenly distributed
Solute substance that is dissolved in a solution
Solvent dissolving substance in a solution.
Suspension mixture of water and nondissolved material.
pH Scale Scale with values from 0 to 14, used to measure the concentration of H+ ions in a solution; a pH of 0 to 7 is acidic and a pH level of 7 to 14 is basic.
Acid Compound that forms hydrogen ions in solution; a solution with a pH of less than 7.
Base Compound that produces hydroxide ions in solution; solution with a pH of more than 7.
Buffer Compound that prevents sharp, sudden changes in pH.
Monomer Small chemical unit that makes up a polymer.
Polymer molecules composed of many monomers; makes up macromolecules.
Carbohydrate Compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; type of nutrient that is the major source of energy for the body.
Monosaccharide simple sugar molecule.
Lipid Macromolecule made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes.
Nucleic Acid macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.
Nucleotide Subunit of which nucleic acids are composed; made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
Protein macromolecules that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair.
Amino Acid Compound with an amino group on one end and carboxyl group on the other end.
Chemical Reactant process that changes, or transforms, one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals.
Reactant elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction.
Product elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction.
Activation Energy Energy that is needed to get a reaction started.
Catalyst Substance that speeds up the rate of chemical reactions.
Enzyme Protein catalyst that speeds up the rate of specific biological reactions.
Substrate reactant of an enzyme- catalyzed reaction.
Created by: schwartzs17