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DALTON: ATOMS 1. all matter is composed of atoms 2. atoms cannot be created or destroyed 3. atoms of different elements are different 4. atoms can combine to form molecules
ATOMIC NUMBER the number of protons in the nucleus
MASS NUMBER the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in an atom
ISOTOPES Atoms of the same element with different mass numbers/different numbers of neutrons
ISOTOPES PROPERTIES 1. same chemical properties 2. different physical properties: melting and boiling points
ALPHA PARTICLES too little neutrons 2 protons + 2 neutrons
BETA PARTICLES too much neutrons electron from neutron decay
GAMMA RAYS electromagnetic radiation
CARBON14 DATING neutron => proton and electron, electron released as beta particle
IONS kation+ anion-
MASS SPECTROMETER vaporization ionization acceleration deflection detection
RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS is the average mass of an atom of an element, taking into account all its isotopes and their relative abundance, compared to one atom of carbon12
ABSORPTION SPECTRUM when light is passed through something, some colours are missing
EMISSION SPECTRUM when high voltage is applied, then lines are seen
ENERGY OF PHOTONS the energy of a photon is directly proportional to its frequency and inversely proportional to its wavelength
FIRST IONIZATION ENERGY the minimum energy required to remove one mol of electrons from one mole of gaseous atoms in their ground state
PATTERNS IN IONIZATION ENERGIES there is in increase in successive ionization energies there are jumps when electrons are removed from levels closer to the nucleus
WAVE AND PARTICLES MODELS sometimes as wave: electrons through graphite, sometimes as particles
UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE, HEISENBERG we cannot know where an electron is at a given moment in time, we only can get the probability picture where it is likely to be
ORBITAL a wave description of an electron, shows the volume of space where the electron is likely to be
S ORBITAL spherical
P ORBITAL 3 p orbitals 2x1, arranged at right angles with the nucleus
D ORBITAL 5 d orbitals 4x1, right angles with nucleus
PAULI EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE no more than two electrons can occupy any one orbital, and if two electrons are in the same orbital they must spin in opposite directions
AUFBAU PRINCIPLE electrons are placed into orbitals of lowest energy first
COPPER AND CROMIUM after e3, e4 and e5 are taken simultaneously
IF TWO ELECTRONS IN SAME SUBSHELL easier to remove one because of repulsive force from other
Created by: izzy-