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final exam

Gas molecules are easily compressed because there is a lot of _________ between the particles empty space
at a given temperature, all gas particles have the same_________ average kinetic energy
The SI unit of pressure is the ___________ Pascal
The total pressure of a mixture of gases is ____________the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture equal to
the forces that hold water molecules together in a drop of water are ______________ intermolecular
Attractions between oppositely charged regions of polar molecules are ____________forces dipole-dipole
A liquid is less fluid than a gas because the particles of a liquid have_________intermolecular forces greater
The electrical conductivities of metallic solids are _________ than the conductivities of molecular solids better
Crystals are classified into seven crystal systems based on the ______________of their unit cells angles and dimensions
An ice cube melts as it ________energy from its surroundings absorbs
_______________is the point on a phase diagram that represents the temperature and pressure at which three phases of a substance can coexist triple point
When vaportization occurs only at the surface of a liquid, the process is called__________________ evaporation
In eleastic collisions between gas molecules, no kinetic energy is lost
which of the following gases will diffuse fastest through xenon? a. hydrogen b. helium c. iodine d. carbon dixoide helium
methane(CH4) effuses twice as fast as sexond gas. What is the molar mass of the second gas 64 g/mol
standard atomspheric pressure will support a column of mercury in a barometer to what height 760 mm
Force per unit area pressure
The model describing the behavior of gases in terms of particles in motion kinetic-molecular theory
an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure barometer
a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter temperature
states that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of each gas in the mixture dalton's law of partial pressure
collisions between gas particles in which no kinetic energy is lost elastic collisions
the movement of one material through another diffusion
states that the rate of effusion for a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass graham's law of effusion
a manometer contains a mixture of radon and helium with partial pressures of 33.0 kPa and 346.0 kPa, respectively. WHat is the total pressure? 379 kPa
In Which substance is hydrogen bonding greatest H2O
Drops of dew on a spider's web illustrate which of the following statements water has high surface tension
A measure of the resistance of a liquid to flow viscosity
A solid whose atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in an orderly, geometric, three-dimensional structure crystalline solid
A solid in which the particles are not arranged in a regular, repeating pattern amorphous solid
which of the following processes releases energy? sublimation
The temperature at which a crystalline solid becomes a liquid? melting point
The pressure exerted by a vapor over a liquid vapor pressure
The process by which a substance changes from a gas or vapor to a solid without first becoming a liquid deposition
Temperature at which a liquid become a crystalline solid freezing point
temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the external or atomospheric pressure boiling point
___________________ law states that the volume and kelvin temperature of a contained gas are directly proportional if pressure is constant charles
boyles law states that the pressure and volume of a contained gas are ___________proportional if temperature is constant inversely
Assuming all other variables remain constant when you squeeze a balloon the pressure inside the balloon____________ increases
Which equation shows Boyle's law P1V1=P2V2 at constant temperature
Which equation shows Charles law V1/T1=V2/T2 at constant pressure
THe pressure of a given mass of gas varies directly with the kelvin temperature when the volume remains constant Gay-Lussac's law
______________states that the volume of one mole of any gas at STP is 22.4 L Avogrado's Principle
Which of the following are the conditions known as stand temperature and pressure (STP)? 0 degrees C and 1.00 atm
In the combined gas law, this variable is always constant number of moles of gas
which equation shows the combined gas law? P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2
What volume will one mole of a gas occupy under standard temperature and pressure 22.4 L
Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles Avogrado's principle
Temperature, pressure, and volume are related for a fixed amount of gas combined gas law
consider the ideal gas law and the ideal gas constant. What info do you need in order to determine the volume of the gas if you know the pressure, the temperature, and the ideal gas constant the number of moles of the gas
real gases deviate most from ideal gas behavior at extremely high pressures and low temperatures
Which equation shows the ideal gas law? PV=nRT
What variable is mentioned in the ideal gas law that is assumed to be constant in the other gas laws? number of moles
R represents the relationship among pressure, temperature, and number of moles of gas present ideal gas constant
In determining the volume of a product from the volume of a reactant under constant conditions of temperature and pressure, which of the following steps is needed? determine the mole ration of the gaseous substances
the volume occupied by 4 moles of Br2 at STP is___________. 89.6L
Based on the following reaction, CH4(g) + 2CO2(g) -> CO2(g) + 2H2O(g), what is the volume ration of methane, CH4, to carbon dioxide, CO2? 1:1
What information is NOT given by the coefficients in a balanced chemical equation? the mass rations of reactants and products
A substance that dissolves in a solvent is said to be ________ in that solvent soluble
Shaking and stirring __________ the rate of solvation by moving the solvated particles away from the contact areas more quickly increases
the most common solvent among liquid solutions is___________ water
nonpolar solutes are more soluble in nonpolar____________ solvents
a supersaturated solution contains ________ dissolved solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature more
A __________ solution contains a small amount of solute relative to the solute's solubility dilute
A saturated solution is more _________ than an unsaturated solution concentrated
Molar solutions are calculated and expressed in ____________ moles per liter
THe colligative properties of a 1M aqueous solution sodium chloride (NaCl) will be ___________ the colligative properties of a 1M aqueous solution of potassium bromide (KBr) same as
The _________ of the vapor pressure of a pure solvent when a solution is formed a colligative property lowering
A 1m solution of a nonelectrolyte will have a _________ effect on the colligative properties of its solution than a 1m solution of an electrolyte will have on the colligative properties of its solution lesser
________________ is the temperature difference between a solution's and a pure solvent's boiling point boiling point elevation
_________ are heterogeneous mixtures that contain particles between 1nm and 1000nm in diameter colloids
After adding a small crystal of copper(II) sulfate to an aqueous solution of copper(II) sulfate, a large amount of copper sulfate precipitate forms. Which of the following terms describes the original solution supersaturated solution
The overall energy change that occurs when a solution forms heat of solution
the process of surrounding solute particles with solvent particles to form a solution solvation
The statement that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid Henry's law
What term describes a solution in which the dissolved solute is in equilibrium with the undissolved solute dilute solution
Which of the following compounds probides the most solute particles when complete dissociated in water? A. MgCl2 B. NaCl C. KBr D. Na3PO4 Na3PO4
A measure of how much solute is dissolved in a specific amount of solvent or solution concentration
The ration of the number of moles of solute in solution to the total number of moles of solute and solvent mole fraction
The diffusion of solvent particles across a semipermeable membrane from areas of lower solute concentration to areas of higher solute concentration osmosis
The amount of additional pressure caused by water molecules moving into a solution osmotic pressure
the abilitity to be separated by paper filtration is a characteristic of which mixture? suspensions
the erratic movement of colloid particles brownian motion
the scattering of light by dispersed colloid particles tyndall effect
in any chemical reaction, energy can be neither created no destroyed law of conservation of energy
the ability to produce heat or do work energy
energy stored in a substance because of its composition chemical potential energy
heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree celsius specific heat
the SI unit of heat and energy joule
the study of heat changes from chemical reactions and phase changes thermochemistry
the change in enthalpy in a chemical reaction enthalpy (heat) of reaction
standard state of a substance means the normal state of the substance at 298K and 1 atm
The heat required to melt a solid substance enthalpy of fusion
a balanced chemical equation that includes the physical states of all reactants and products and the energy change that accompanies the reaction thermochemical equation
the enthalpy change for the complete burning of one mole of a substance enthalpy (heat) of combustion
the heat of formation of a free element in its standard state is assigned a delta(triangle...change of)Hf degree symbol of exactly 0.0kj
a measurement of the disorder in a system is the entropy
the free energy of a reaction is a combination of the enthalpy and entropy
Which of the following processes results in an increase in the entropy of the system? I. Removing 20 pennies from a box and arranging them face up on a table II. Sweeping the pennies from part I back into the box. III. Water freezing. IV. Water evaporatin II and IV sweeping the pennies back into the box and water evaporating
states the spontaneous processes always proceed in such a way that the entropy of the universe increases law of disorder
a physical or chemical change without outside intervention spontaneous process
energy that is available to do work free energy
+delta H endothermic
+ delta S increase in disorder
+delta G not spontaneous
-delta H exothermic
-delta G spontaneous
-delta increase in order
A __________ is used to measure the amount of heat released or absorbed during a chemical process calorimeter
Melting ice is an example of a spontaneous_________ process endothermic
An exothermic reaction will always be spontaneous if the entropy ________ increases
For the reaction NH4CL(s)-> NH3(g) + HCl(g), the entropy change is ___________ positive
A(n) ___________ is used to increase the rate of a chemical reaction catalyst
generally, increasing the temperature of a reaction ___________ the rate at which the reaction takes place increases
reaction order for a reactant defines how the rate is affected by the____________ of the reactant concentration
the reaction order for a chemical reaction is determined______________ using the mthod of initial rates experimentally
In the expression Rate equals k[A], the reaction rate __________ when the concentration of A doubles doubles
The complete sequence of ____________ that make up a complex reaction is called a reaction mechanism elementary reactions
in a reaction, activiation energy is the amount of energy needed to form the activated complex
Another name for an activated complex transition state
Change in reactant concentration per unit time reaction rate
States that atoms, ions, or molecules must collide in order to react collision theory
Minimum amount of energy required to form the activated complex activation energy
A catalyst that slows down, or inhibits, reactions rates inhibitor
the rate of reaction between A and B is expressed as Rate equals k[A][B]2. To produce the greatest increas in the reaction rate triple B while keeping A constant
To slow down the rate of a chemical reaction, you would decrease the temperature of the reaction
Defines how a reaction rate is affected by the concentration of a reactant reaction order
Mathematical relationship between the rate of a chemical reaction and the concentrations of the reactants rate law
Numerical value that relates reaction rate and concentration at a given temperature specific rate constant
The rate-determining step in a complex chemical raction is determined by the slowest elementary step
Identify the substance at position 1 of the energy level diagram above reactants
Identify the substance at position 2 of the energy level diagram above intermediates
Identify the substance at position 3 of the energy leveel diagram above activated complex
Identify the substance at position 4 of the energy level diagram above products
chemical equilibrium is a _____ state, in which the concentrations of reactants and products are constant but not necessarily equal dynamic
In a____________ chemical equilibrium, the reactants and products are present in more than one physical state heterogeneous
For the equilibrium expression Keq equals [PCl3][Cl2]/[PCl5], the _______ of the forward reaction is PCl5 ractant
Raising the temperature of a chemical equilibrium causes the equilibrium to shift in the direction of the _______ reaction endothermic
Adding oxygen gas to the chemical equilibrium 2SO2(g)+O2(g) <-> 2SO3(g) will shift the reaction to the right
The best way to be certain that any chemical equilibrium will produce the largest amount of product is to keep removing product (blank)
If an equilibrium reaction is started with only reactants then in time the concentrations of the reactants will decrease
when an equilibrium product constant has a very high value, it means there is a higher percentage of products than of reactants
A reversible reaction is a reaction that can occur in both forward and reverse directions
this is the expression for the equilibrium constant for the reaction: CO(g) + H2O (g) <- -> CO2(g) +H2(g). Keq equals [CO2][H2]/ {CO][H2O]
The value of any equilibrium constant is correct only at a specific temperature
A state in which the forward and reverse reactions balancxe each other because they take place at equal rates Le Chatelier's principle
The numerical value of the ratio of product concentrations to reactant concentrations, with the concentration of each reactant and product raised to the power corresponding to its coefficient in the balanced equation equilibrium constant
Increasing the volume of the vessel containing the chemical equilibrium 2SO2 (g) + O2(g) <-> 2SO3(g) would ch.18 number 14
What predicts that increasing the concentration of NH3 will shift the following reaction to the left? N2(g) + 3H2(g) <- -> 2NH3(g) Le Chateliers principle
What will be the result if the volume of the reaction vessel is decreased for the reaction: H2(g) + I2 <- -> 2HI(g) the equilibrium does not change
If a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium the system shifts in the direction that relieves the sress Le Chateliers principle
A lesser amount of Al(OH)3 will dissolve in a solution of AlCl3 than in pure ware because of the common ion effect
What can be determined if the ion product is compared to the solubility product constant whether a substance will precipitate
An equilibrium constant for the dissolving of a sparingly soluble ionic compound in water solubility product constnat
Bases taste bitter
a(n)_______________ solution contains more hydroxide ions than it does hydrogen ions basic
Who proposed the theory regarding acids and bases that states acids contain ionizable hydrogen atoms and bases contain hydroxide groups and produce hydroxide ions in solution arrhenius
who proposed the theory regarding acids and bases that states an acid is a hydrogen-ion donor and a base is a hydrogen-ion acceptor bronsted-lowry
the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration is pH
______________ are the products of a neutrailization reaction between a strong acid and a strong base a salt and water
AN acid-base indicator changes color when which of the following is reached a specific pH
A hydronium ion is a hydrated__________ion hydrogen
NaOH is a strng base. The [OH-] of a .10M NaOH solution is .10M
A solution of a salt of a strong acid and a weak base will be _______ slightly acidic
When water self-ionizes__________ and hydroxide ions form hydronium
The value of Kw at 298 K is _____e-14 1.0
A pH greater than 7 indicates a ______solution basic
if the pH of a solution is 10 its pOH is_______ 4
Buffers are solutions that resist changes in pH when _______amounts of acid or base are added limited
Since nitric acid is a _________ acid, it completely ionizes in solution strong
Which is the weakest acid: acetic, boric, hypobromous, iodic, nitrous, propanoic boric
oxidation is the _______ of electrons by an atom loss
sodium is the _______- agent in the folowing reaction: 2Na(S) + Cl2(g)-> SNaCl(s) reducing
If the oxidation number of sulfer changes from +6 to 2, sulfur has been ________ reduced
If oxidation occurs, reduction ________ occur must also
When zinc metal reacts with chlorine gas, ________ is the oxidation half-reaction Zn -> Zn 2+ + 2e-
In a redox reaction, electrons are transferred from atom to atom
Which of the following types of reactions are always redox reactions? single-replacement and combustion
THe process of reduction is the _________ of electrons by an atom gain
When magnesium burns, it is oxidized. it is also____________ in the reaction the reducing agent
When calcium reacts with oxygen, each calcium atom loses two electrons the oxidation number of calcium increases by 2
The oxidation number of chromium can change from +6 to +3. For this change to occur, chromium ___________ extrons gains 3
For one atom to gain electrons another must lose electrons
A chemical reaction in which electrons are transferred from one atom to another is a redox
Oxidation number of As in H3AsO4 +5
Oxidation number of S in CaSO4 +6
Oxidation number of Fe in Fe(NO3)2 +2
Oxidation number of N in AlN -3
Oxidation number of Cr in CrO4 2- +6
a redox reaction will occur spontaneously if its cell standard potential is positive
the two halves of an electrochemical cell are connected by a tube called a ___________ which allows ions to move between the halves salt bridge
a redox reaction that occures spontaneously in an electrochemical cell ___________ electrical energy produces
in the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell, _________ is reduced oxygen
the rusting of iron requires oxygen, water, and ________ ions chapter 21 number 7
during the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride sodium ions are reduced
a voltaic cell consisting of a moist, electrolytic paste inside a zinc shell zinc-carbon dry cell
the electrode where oxidation takes place in an electrochemical cell anode
one of the two main parts of an electrochemical cell where either oxidation or reduction takes place half-cell
a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy or electrical energy into chemical energy electrochemical cell
the tendency of an electrode to gain electrons reduction potentinal
electrode at which reduction takes place cathode
the voltage measured between the electrod of a half-cell and the standard hydrogen electrode standard reduction potential
the loss of metal due to a redox reaction of the metal with substances in the environment corrosion
the coating of iron with a layer of zinc galvanizing
why is the process of manufaction aluminum expensive the purification process uses huge amounts of electrical energy
the use of electrical energy to cause a chemical reaction electrolysis
a flow of charged particles such as electrons is called a current
_______________ depend on reversible redox reactions rechargable batteries
when copper is purified by electrolysis, the ________________- of the cell is a thin sheet of pure copper cathode
______________ produce electric energy by means of redox reactions that are not earily reversed primary battery
_____________ are rechargeable and depend on reversible redox reactions for storage, computers, and cars secondary battery
________________ alkanes contain carbon atoms that are bonded to more than two otehr carbon atoms branched-chain
all organic compounds contain the element carbon
butane, pentane, and hexane are members of one ________________ homologous series
a ____________ formula shows the structure of a hydrocarbon but saves space by not showing how the hydrogen atoms branch off the carbons atoms condensed structural formula
heptane is an example of a ________ hydrocarbon saturated
a hydrocarbon that has one or more triple covalent bonds between carbon atoms i called an___________ alkyne
alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes are called _____________ compounds alliphatic
isomers in which the atoms are bonded in different orders are known as _______________ structural isomers
_______________isomers result from different arrangements of four different groups about the same carbon atom optical
compounds that exist in right and left forms have a property called chirality
isomers have the same molecular formula but different molecular structures
organic compounds that contain benzene rings are called ___________compunds aromatic
a carcinogen is a substance that causes cancer
a straight chain alkane formula CnH2n+2
hydrocarbons containe carbon and hydrogen
in a branched alkane each branch attached to the main chain is called a substituent group
choose the correct name for each of the following structures. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 pentane
cyclohexane is an example of a cyclic hydrocarbon
how many carbon atoms ar ein a straight chain alkyne with one triple bond and 16 hydrogen atoms 9
CH3CH double CHCH2CH3 2-pentene
CH3CH2C triple CCH3 2-pentyne
in a polarized ligght, the light waves vibrate in one plane
which substances are found in the residue collected at the bottom of a fractionating tower paraffin, tar, asphalt
the boiling of petroleum to separate components is called fractional distilllation
the molecular formula of a straight-chain alkene with six carbons atoms and one double bond is C6H12
the structure of 3-chlorobutane would show four carbon atoms and ___________ of chlorine one atom
the process called _________ breaks large alkanes from petroleum into smaller carbon compounds cracking
_________ are responsible for the odors characteristic of dead, decaying organisms amenes
because of their typically pleasant odors and tastes, ______ are often used in flagrances and flavorings esters
the names of ketons end with suffix -one
the name of aldehydes end with the suffix -al
hydrogenation and hydration are both types of _________ reactions addition
a reaction in which an alkyl halide is converted to an alkene, with the production of a hydrogen halide, is an example of a(n) ___________________ reaction elimination
a dehydration reaction releases water
in an organic molecule any atom or group of atoms that reacts in a certain way functional group
organic compound containing fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine halocarbon
which of the following tend to be basic? ethers, amines, alcohols, amides amides
ethanol with small amounts of noxious materials added denatured alcohol
compound with an oxygen atom bonded to two carbon atoms ether
the simplest carboxylic acid is commonly known as formic acid
compound with a carbonyl group bonded to two carbon atoms ketone
compound containing a carboxyl group carboxylic acid
what is the structural formula of the monomer from which the polumer polyethylene is produced? two carbon atoms double-bonded to each other and single-bonded to hydrogen atoms
large molecule consisting of many repeating subunits polymer
a single unit molecule from which a polymer is made monomer
an alpha particle has the composition of a helium__________ nucleus
the loss of an aplha particle from an isotope causes its atomic number to __________________ decrease by two
the mass of an atoms nucleus is always _________ the total mass of the nucleons composing it less then
carbon-14 is used as a radiotracer in studies of photosynthesis because it has the same______ properties as stable carbon-12 chemical
____________ rays are particularly dangerous because they easily penetrate living tissue gamma
the most penetrating form of nuclear radiation is gamma rays
isotopes of atoms with unstable nuclei that emit radiation radioisotope
one way to increase the stability of a nucleus with a 0.8: 1.0 neutron-to-proton ratio is to increase the number of neutrons
in an atom, the strong nuclear force acts on protons and neutrons
during the process of electron capture, an electron from outside the nucleus joins with a proton to form a neutron
what is the symbol used for a neutron in balancing nuclear equations? 1 over 0 n
a force that acts only on subatomica particles that are extremely close together strong nuclear force
the area on a graph plotting neutrons and protons within which all stable nuclei are found band of stability
another name for a proton or neutron nucleon
a series of nuclear reactions beginning with an unstable nucleus and resulting in the formation of a stable nucleus radioactive decay series
an example of a transuranium element is plutonium
the half-life of calcium-47 is about 5 days. starting with 64 g of this isotope, what would be the amount remaining after 20 days? 4g
the process in which an atom of one element changes into an atom of another element transmutation
a way of determining the age of very old objects using radioactive materials radiochemical dating
one advantage of a fusion raction over a fission reaction for the purpose of producing energy is that the fusion reaction produces more energy per particle than does the fission reaction reaction
one product of all nuclear fission reactions is energy
mass is lost or gained in all chemical and nuclear reactions
a chain reaction will NOT take place in a piece of uranium if there are too few neutrons
fusion reaction require incredibly high temperatures
the difference between the mass of a nucleus and the sum of its nucleons mass defect
reactors able to produce more fuel than they use breeder ractor
readiation damages all kinds of cells
one of the most serious problems surrounding the use of nuclear power plants is finding a way to dispose of spent fuel rods
a radioisotope that emits non-ionizing radiation and is used to signal the presence of an element of specific substance radiotracer
Created by: rangerlove13