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Chapter 4

Chapter 4, Atomic Structures: vocab and key ideas

QuestionAnswer
What is an atom? an atom is the smallest particle of an element that retains its identity in a chemical reaction.
What Greek philosopher was amoung the first to suggest the existence of the atom? Democritus.
What did Democritus reason about atoms? that they were invisible and indestructable.
What was the one area in Democritus study of the atom that he left out? the scientific method.
Who was Dalton? an English chemist
How did Dalton's work improve upon that of Democritus's? Dalton, by using experimental methods transformed the ideas od Democritus into a scientific theory.
What is Dalton's work known as? Dalton's atomic theory
What are the first 2 ideas expressed in Dalton's atomic theory? 1) All elements are composed of tiny individual particles called atoms. 2) Atoms of the same element are identical. The atoms from any one atom are different them those from another element.
What are the last 2 ideas expressed in Daltons atomic theory? 3) Atoms of different elements can physically mix together or can chemically combine in a simple whole number ratio to from compounds.
How can people see atoms? individual atoms are observable with instuments such as scanning electron microscopes.
Is a atom divisible? yes.
What are the three smaller particles a atom can be broken down to? electrons, protons, and neutrons
What are the smaller particles of an atom called? subtonic particles.
Who discovered the electron? J.J. Tomson
What is an electron? a negatively charged subtomic particle.
What is a Cathode Ray? A bight beam of light/ or glowing light
What are protons? possitively charged subtomic particles
Who discovered the proton? Eugen Goldstein
Define neutron: a subtomic particle with no charge but with a mass close to that of a proton.
Who is responsible for the discovery of the neutron? James Chadwick
What are quarks? an even smaller substance that protons are composed of.
What was Rutherford's proposal concerning the atom? that the atom was most empty space.
What did Rutherford discover in the atom? a nucleus.
What are nuleus' made out of? protons and nrutrons
Rutherfords atomic model is known as what? the nuclear atom.
Elements are different because they contain different numbers of ______. protons
An elements atomic number is the number of what? how many protons are in the nuleus of the element.
How many protons does one hydrogen atom have? And what is its atomic number? 1 (for both)
How many protons does oxygen have? And what is it's atomic number? 8 (for both answers)
The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus is called what? mass number.
In a nuclear atom, where are the protons and neutrons located? in the possitively charged nucleus.
Number of neutrons = ______ - ________ ? Mass number - atomic number
Define isotope: atoms that have different numbers of nuetrons and the same number of protons.
Because isotopes of an element have different numbers of neutrons, they have different ______ numbers. mass
How is atomic mass unit defined? defined as one twelfth of the mass of a carbon-12 atom.
What is the atomic mass of an element? the weighted average mass of the atoms in the naturally occuring sample of the element.
In a nuclear atom, where are the protons and neutrons located? in the possitively charged nucleus.
Number of neutrons = ______ - ________ ? Mass number - atomic number
Because isotopes of an element have different numbers of neutrons, they have different ______ numbers. mass
How is atomic mass unit defined? defined as one twelfth of the mass of a carbon-12 atom.
Created by: jmhschemistry