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P Chem

thermodynamics study of transformation of energy
system the quantity of matter when we can draw a boundary
surroundings region outside system we make measurements
open system matter and energy CAN be transferred through boundry between system and surroundings
closed system matter CANNOT be transferred through boundry. Energy CAN be transferred.
isolated system closed system that has no mechanical/thermal contact with surroundings CANNOT transfer matter or energy
work done to achieve motion against an opposing force:Raise weight. when a force acts upon an object to cause displacement of an object. eg. Pushing shoprite cart.
energy capacity to do work
heat energy transferred due to temp. differences ONLY
diathermic boundries that DO permit transfer of energy as heat
adiabatic boundries that do NOT permit transfer of energy as heat
exothermic releases energy as heat into suroundings. combustion increase TEMP
endothermic energy is absorbed by sustem from surroundings as heat
thermal motion disorderly molecular motion in surroundings.
internal energy total energy of system state function deyltaU
state function value depends only on current state of system independent of path
first law of thermodynamics internal energy of an isolated system is constant
expansion work work arising from change in volume
nonexpansion work/ additional work work arising from no change in volume
free expansion expansion against zero opposing force
indicator diagram graph used to show expansion of work
reversible change change that can be reversed by an infinitesimal ,small modification of a variable.
calorimetry study of heat transfer during physical and chemical process.
calorimeter device used to measure energy energy transferred as heat
adiabatic bomb calorimeter measures internal energy when q=0
calorimeter constant c
heat capacity slope tangent to curve at any temp
molar heat capacity Cvm=Cv/n
specific heat capacity Cv/mass
enthalpy u+pV
isobaric calorimieter constant pressure
adiabatic flame calorimeter constant volume
differential scanning calorimeter measure H
thermochemistry study of energy transferred as heat in chem rxn
std enthalpy change in enthalpy when the inital and fianl substances in std state
std state 1 bar
std enthalpy of transition change in physical state
hfus s to l
hvap l to g
lattice enthalpy change in std molar enthalpy
born haber cycle solves for lattice enthlpy
thermochemical equation combo of chem eq and corresponding change in std enthalpy
std reaction enthalpy sum of H prod - Sum of Hreac
std enthalpy combustion complete oxidation of organic compound to co2 gas and liquid h2o is contains CHON
hess law enthalpy of an overall rxn is the sum of std enthalpies of individual rxns into which a rxn maybe divided.
std enthalpy of form std rxn enthalpy for formation of compound from its elements in ref states.
reference state most stable state 1 bar
stochimetric numbers vj Hprod-Hreac
kirchoff Law equates emission and absorption in heated objects
path functions depend on path between 2 states
exact differential small quanitity when integrated gives a result that is independent of path between initial and final state.
inexact differential small quantity when integrated gives a result that depends on path between initial and final states.
internal pressure internal energy of system changes when it expands or contracts at constant temp
expansion coeff fractional change in volume when temp increases
isothermal compressibility fractional change in volume when pressure increases
isenthalpic constant enthalpy
isothermal joule thomson coeff slope of graph p vs t
inversion temp critical temp when non ideal gas is expanding at constant enthalpy temp is decreasing.
Created by: eida