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Chapter 1

chemistry the study of the composition of matter and the changes it undergoes
matter anything that takes up space (particles) or has volume
Examples of the composition of matter and changes? comp.: gas, liquid, solid, protons changes: chemical reactions, breaking bonds, freezing, exploding, condensing
Matter vs. Non-matter matter: textbook, air non-matter: sunlight, heat
3 Reasons why to study chemistry and examples? 1. To Understand the Natural World - freezing, how living things consume food 2. To be an informed citizen - radioactive waste, chemical weapons (Syria), cancer causing chemicals 3. To Prepare for a Profession - scuba diver, firefighter, farmer
Main concepts of the "I Want to Believe" article? The author will not believe something unless he has solid proof (amputee grows back limb). He talks about aliens, only evidence is blurry pictures and fuzzy videos. He wants to know for sure, no ifs ands or buts. The author has no view on God.
The Big Bang Theory The Big Bang Theory is about the creation of not only our solar system, but all the universes. The belief is that a big bang occurred creating all the universes and galaxies. Everything on Earth is perfectly tailored for us to live and survive.
Basic Lab Safety Procedures - always keep things above eye level - whenever doing a lab, wear goggles and lab coat - if hurt tell Mr. Crossen - never bring bottles of chemicals or anything to desk unless told
fume hood used to suck harmful chemicals so they do not get into the air we are breathing (hold chemicals)
scoopula spoon (scoop) /spatula (clean)
beaker holds liquids
Erlinmeyer flask liquids (easier to swirl)
Florence flask liquids (easier to swirl)
graduated cylinder measure volume of liquids (smaller one is more accurate)
test tube holder holds test tubes if they are hot or contain dangerous chemicals
mortar and pestle smooshes things up
evaporating dish used to dry things
watch glass used to dry things
stirrer stirs things
volumetric pipette more accurate measure of liquid
plastic pipette whatever measure (not used for accuracy)
bunsen burner heats things up (purple outside, blue inside <-hotter)
Where and when did alchemy occur? Asia around 400 BC
What did alchemists believe about the composition and changes of matter? They believed that all matter was made up of four elements (water, fire, earth, air). Their primary goal was to change the matter and it didn't really matter to them why these changes occurred.
What are practical materials alchemists used? beakers, test tubes, flasks, mortar and pestle
What are the mystical properties of the philosopher's stone? 1. It could change any matter into gold 2. It could grant eternal life
Main concepts of "The Philiosopher's Stone"? It talked about the connection to Harry Potter and Nicholas Flamel. Flamel (France) was a real person who people believed created the philiosophers stone and lived hundreds of years. The history of the search for the stone is described.
Why did alchemists use symbols? They didn't want other alchemists to now what they were doing or, if they ever found the stone, how to make it as well.
Main concepts of "Magic or Mainstream Science"? The interview dealt with Isaac Newton and alchemy. For many people it was hard to believe Isaac Newton was considered an alchemist. The science of alchemy is known as a pseudo science. Isaac Newton wanted power over the natural world.
Steps of the Scientific Method 1. Question/Observation 2. Hypothesis 3. Experiment 4. Conclusion
Provide a hypothesis for a valid observation? If a flashlight is not turning on. Hypothesis: The batteries are dead.
manipulated variable what you are changing
responding variable what you observe
control stays the same
control group does not contain the manipulated variable
experiment scientific procedure testing a hypothesis
Provide a valid conclusion for a given experiment? Spongebob Bubble Soap: The hypothesis was incorrect because the Super Bubble Soap produced bigger bubbles but not twice as large. These results are valid because it was performed 10 times.
Created by: ninjabunny0