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Chem Chapter 1

Chemistry 1 Chapter 1

Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass.
Energy Ability to do work
Atom Smallest part of an element that is still that element
Molecule Two or more atoms joined and actin as a unit
Element Substance that cannot be decomposed by any chemical reaction or physical process into simpler substances
Compound Substance composed of two or more elements chemically combined
Chemical Reaction One substance changes into another by reorganizing the way the atoms are attached to each other
Science Framework for gaining and organizing knowledge
Scientific Method Hypothesis, Theory, Law
Hypothesis Possible explanation for an observation
Theory Attempt to explain why it happens
Law Summarizes what happens
Law of Conservation of Mass Mass is neither created nor destroyed
Law of Definite Proportion Given compound always contains the same proportion of elements by mass
Law of Multiple Proportions Elements can be combined to form different compounds by combining the elements in different proportions
Dalton's Atomic Theory 1. Elements are composed of atoms 2. All atoms of an element show same chemical properties 3.Atoms of different elements have different properties 4.Compounds form when atoms of two or more elements combine
Dalton's Atomic Theory 5.In a compound the relative number of atoms of each kind is definite and constant 6.In a chemical reaction no atom of any element disappears or is changed into an atom of another element
Dalton's Atomic Theory 7. Chemical reactions involve changing the way atoms are joined together
Rutherford's Experiment Shot alpha particles at a thin piece of gold foil and watched them scatter. Proving that there was a "nucleus".
Atomic Structure Positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons
Electrons 1. Found in electron cloud 2.Relative charge of -1 3.Relative mass of 0.00055 amu 4.J.J Thompson discovered
Protons 1.Found in the nucleus 2.Relative charge of +1 3.Relative mass of 1.0073 amu
Neutrons 1. Found in nucleus 2.Neutral charge 3.Relative mass of 1.0087
Atomic Number Number of protons in nucleus
Mass Number Number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Isotopes Example: 23 Na and 24 Na Same number of protons but different number of neutrons
Ion Electrically charged particle
Cation When an atom loses an electron it becomes positively charged
Anion When an atom gains an electron it becomes positively charged
Energy Ability to do work or produce heat
Work Force acting over a distance
Heat Energy that flows from one object to another because of temperature
Law of Conservation of Energy Energy can be converted from one form to another but can be neither created nor destroyed TOTAL ENERGY CONTENT OF THE UNIVERSE IS CONSTANT
Kinetic Energy Energy of Motion
Potential Energy Stored energy due to position
Created by: jusbwn