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Chapter 2

Chapter 2, Matter and Change: vocab and key ideas

QuestionAnswer
What is mass? the measure of the amount of matter the object contains.
The measure of space occupied by an object is known as what? volume
What is an extensive property? a property that depends on the amount of matter in a sample. Mass and volume are both examples of extensive properties.
What is an intensive property? a property that depends on the type of matter in a sample, not the amount of matter.
Matter that has a uniform definite composition is known as what? a substance.
Every sample of a given substance has identical __________ properties because every sample has the same composition. intensive
What are physical properties? a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substances composition.
What are the three states of matter? solid, liquid, and gas
What is a solid? a form of matter that has a definite shape and volume. Solids expand only slightly when heated, and the particles in a solid are tightly packed together.
What is a liquid? a form of matter that has an indefinite shape, flows, yet has a fixed volume. Liquids expand slightly when heated.
What is gas? a form of matter that takes both the shape and volume of its containers. Particles in gas are usually much father apart than the particles in liquid, so it is easier to compress the particles in a smaller container.
What does the word vapor describe? vapor describes the gaseous state of a substance that is generally a liquid or solid at room temperature, as in water vapor.
What happens during a physical change? What does not? during a physical change some properties of a material change, but the composition of the material does NOT.
What are the two classifications for physical changes? reversible and irreversible.
All physical changes that involve a change from one form to another are ___________ . reversible.
Cutting hair, filing nails and cracking an egg are examples of _________ physical changes. irreversal. (because they can never be undone)
What is a mixture? a physical blend of two or more components.
What are the two types of mixtures? heterogenous and homogenous mixtures
A mixture in which the composition is not uniform without is a ________________ mixture. heterogenous mixture. (consists of two phases)
What is a homogenous mixture? a mixture in which composition is uniform throughout. (like olive oil and vinegar and consists of 1 phase)
What is another name for a homogenous mixture? a solution.
The term phase is used to describe what? any part of a sample with uniform composition and properties.
Differences in physical properties can be used to ___ mixtures. separate
What is the process that separates a solid from the liquid in a heterogenous mixture? filtration.
During the process of distillation what happens? a liquid is boiled to produce a vapor that is then condensed into a liquid.
What is a element? the simplest from of matter with a unique set of properties.
What is a compound? a substance that contains two or more elements chemically combined in a fixed proportion.
Compounds can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means, but _____ (s) can not. elements
What is a chemical change? a change that produces matter with a different composition than the original matter.
What do chemists use to represent elements? symbols.
In a chemical symbol what letter is uppercased and what letter is lowercased? first letter uppercased, second lowercased.
What is the periodic table? an arrangement of elements in which the elements are separated into groups based upon repeating sets of properties.
Each horizontal row of the periodic table is called a ________. There are seven ____ in the periodic table. period
Each vertical column of the periodic table is called a _____, or _______. group (or) family
What is a chemical property? the ability for a substance to undergo a specific chemical change.
During a chemical change, the composition of _____ always changes. matter
Define chemical reaction. when one or more substances change into one for more new substances.
A substance present at the start of the reaction is now as what? the reactant.
The substance produced at the end of the reaction is known as the what? product.
Define precipitate: a solid that forms and settles out of a liquid mixture.
What does the law of conservation of mass state? that in any physical change of chemical reaction, mass is conserved. Mass is neither created nor destroyed.
Created by: jmhschemistry