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Ch.2 Terms and Notes

Need to know for the Ch. 1-3 Exam (taken from S.A. study guides and lectures)

QuestionAnswer
Define: Law of Conservation of Mass Definition: This states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but may be changed from one form to another.
Define: Law of Constant Composition Definition: This states that samples of a pure compound always contain the same elements in the same mass proportion.
Define: Proton Definition: Electrically positive particle in the nucleus. Adding or subtracting these is catastrophic and CAN NOT be done by conventional means.
Define: Neutron Definition: Electrically neutral particle in the nucleus. Adding or subtracting these will not affect the elemental name or charge but WILL affect mass and isotopic identity.
Define: Electron Definition: Electrically negative particle found in the space surrounding the nucleus.
Define: Nucleus Definition: This is the core of an atom, made of protons and neutrons.
Define: Atomic Mass Unit (u) The unit of a scall of relative atomic masses of the elements; 1u=1/12 of the mass of a carbon atom with 6 protons and 6 neutrons . . . *** (in other words, it is approximately the mass of 1 proton OR 1 neutron)
Define: Atomic Number This is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element.
Define: Mass Number (A) The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Define: Isotope Definition: These are Atoms with the same number of protons, but differing numbers of neutrons. They are different forms of a single element.
Define: Atomic Nuclear Symbol (Isotopic Symbol) Definition: This consists of three parts: the symbol of the element, the mass number of the specific isotope(top number), and the atomic number of the element (bottom number).
Define: Atomic Weight . . . Also known as Atomic Mass Definition: The average mass of atoms of an element, calculated using the relative abundance of isotopes in a naturally-occurring element. It is the weighted average of the masses of naturally-occurring isotopes.
Define: Atomic Mass . . . Also known as Atomic Weight Definition: This is the average mass of atoms of an element, calculated using the relative abundance of isotopes in a naturally-occurring element.
Define: Period (In relation to the Periodic Table) Definition: In chemistry, this term refers to a horizontal row of the periodic table.
Define: Group (In relation to the Periodic Table) Definition: A vertical column in the Periodic Table.
Identify: Transition Metals ...(using the periodic table, how do you know what these elements are?) 1)They are the B-Groups. And, 2)Located in the middle section of the periodic table.
Identify: Inner Transitional Metals ...(using the periodic table, how do you know what these elements are?) These are found on the insert below the body of the periodic table. ****(because if they were put in their actual location in the middle of the B Groups, the Periodic table would be very long and difficult to put in text books & on posters.)
Identify: Metals ...(using the periodic table, how do you know what these elements are?) These are found to the left of the metaloid elements.
Identify: Nonmetals ...(using the periodic table, how do you know what these elements are?) These are found to the right of the metaloid elements.
Identify: Metalloids ...(using the periodic table, how do you know what these elements are?) B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te ---- Not easily identified by a set group or period, but rather the characteristic "stair step"
Identify: Halogens ...(using the periodic table, how do you know what these elements are?) This is a common name for the 7A group on the periodic table.
Identify: Alkali Metals ...(using the periodic table, how do you know what these elements are?) . . . * * * (Note: this is NOT Alkaline with an 'ne' at the end) This is a common name for the 1A group on the periodic table.
Identify: Alkaline Earth Metals ...(using the periodic table, how do you know what these elements are?) . . . * * * (Note: this IS Alkaline with an 'ne' at the end) This is a common name for the 2A group on the periodic table.
Identify: Noble gases ...(using the periodic table, how do you know what these elements are?) This is a common name for the 8A group on the periodic table. . . A name given to them because their full electron valence shells make them very stable.
Identify: 7 Diatomic Elements (Elements that naturally occur in pairs) He, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I
Define: Anion Definition: An ionic species having a negative charge.
Define: Cation Definition: An ionic species having a positive charge.
Define: Polyatomic Ion Definition: This is an ion comprised of two or more atoms.
Define: Covalent Bond Definition: This is a chemical link between two atoms in which electrons are shared between them.
Define: Ionic Bond Definition: This is a chemical link between two atoms caused by the electrostatic force between oppositely-charged ions in an ionic compound.
Define: Molecular Compound . . . Also known as a Covalent Compound Definition: a molecule formed by covalent bonds, in which the atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
Define: Ionic Compound Definition: This is a compound formed by ions bonding together through electrostatic forces.
Define: Binary Compound Definition: This is a compound made up of two elements.
Define: Binary IONIC Compound Definition: This is an ionic compound made up of two elements.
Define: Binary MOLECULAR Compound Definition: This is a covalent compound made up of two elements.
What is Avogadro's Number? Definition: This is the number of particles found in one mole of a substance. It is the number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12. This experimentally determined value is approximately 6.022 x 1023 particles per mole.
Define: mole Definition: This is a chemical mass unit, defined to be 6.022 x 1023 molecules, atoms, or some other unit. The mass of a mole is the gram formula mass of a substance.
Define: Molar Mass Definition: This is the mass of one mole of a substance, usually expressed in grams or kilograms.
Define: Empirical Formula Definition: This is a formula that shows the ratio of elements present in the compound. The ratios are denoted by subscripts next to the element symbols.
Define: Molecular Formula Definition: This is an expression which states the number and type of atoms present in a molecule of a substance.
Define: Percentage Mass Composition Definition: This is the percentage by mass of each element in a compound.
Define: Hydrated Compound Definition: These are compounds in which molecules of water are associated with ions
What is Dalton's Atomic Theory? Definition: the theory that matter consists of indivisible particles called atoms and that atoms of a given element are all identical and can neither be created nor destroyed. Compounds are formed by combination of atoms (molecules).
Where are Alkali Metals found on the periodic table? Group 1A . . . (Also known as:__?)
Where are the Alkaline Earth Metals found on the periodic table? Group 2A . . . (also known as:__?)
Where are Halogens found on the periodic table? Group 7A . . . (also known as:__?)
Where are the Nobel Gases found on the periodic table? Group 8A . . . (also known as:__?)
Name 7 elements that are Diatomic under normal conditions (25degC, 1atm) He, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I
Name 2 elements that are liquid under normal conditions (25degC, 1atm) Br, Hg
Name the group & the elements that are in a gas state under normal conditions (25degC, 1atm) The Entire 8A Group, plus: N, O, F, Cl
What Phase (State) is the majority of the Periodic Table found under normal conditions? (25degC, 1atm) Solid
What is the difference between Covalent Bond and Ionic Bond? Covalent Bonds are elements sharing electrons of the Valence Shell (Co-valant). Ionic Bonds are elements (or groups of elements) of opposite electrical charge combined to share a zero charge.
What is the numerical value of Avogadro's Number? 6.023 x 10^23 = 1 mole
Define: Molar Mass? Definition: The mass (g/mol) of one mole of atoms (6.023x10^23) of an element or substance.
Define: Molarity Definition: The moles of solute per kg of solvent
How is Isotopic Identity changed? Adding or subtracting electrically neutral Neutrons does this.
What subatomic particle is directly linked to an elemental identity? (this particle can not be added or subtracted with conventional means) Protons are the subatomic particle directly linked to this.
Define Covalent Compound . . . Also known as Molecular Compound Definition: a molecule formed by covalent bonds, in which the atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
Created by: BerScott