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Chem Chapter 1-2.3

Chemistry? the study of the composition of matter and the changes it undergoes
5 ways to tell a chemical reaction occurred? 1. color change 2. light 3. heat 4. gas released 5. precipitate produced
Scientific Method? a logical ,systematic approach to solving or developing an explanation for a scientific question
What are the steps of the scientific method? -make observation -propose hypotheses -test hypotheses -develop theory
independent variable? the variable that is purposefully changed in an experiment
dependent variable? the variable affected by the changed variable
control? the variable in an experiment kept the same
What's the difference between a theory and a hypothesis? a theory is a well tested, broad explanation and a hypothesis is a proposed answer to a question
matter? anything that has mass and takes up space
mass? how much matter is in an object
volume? how much space an object occupies
extensive property? depends on the amount of matter
intensive property? depends on the type of matter
substance? give two types of substances. matter that has a uniform and definite composition; elements and compounds
physical property? quality that can be observed without changing the identity
chemical property? property that in order to be observed, a chemical change must occur
list three physical properties of tap water. color: clear, Boiling point: 100C, state at room temp: liquid
how do you distinguish between two liquids that look the same? boiling point, by distillation
how do you separate sand and table salt? dissolve salt in water and filter sand through a strainer
vapor? the gaseous state of a substance that is liquid at room temp
physical change? when properties of a material change but the composition does not
chemical change? when a change occurs that changes the makeup of a substance
mixture? physical blend of 2+ compounds
heterogeneous mixture? a mixture that is not uniform throughout
homogeneous mixture? uniform composition
solution? homogeneous mixture
phase? used to describe any part of a sample with uniform composition and properties
filtration? physical separation based on solubility. use to separate a solid from a liquid.
distillation? physical separation based on boiling point. use to separate water from liquid
chromatography? physical separation based on dissolvability. mobile and stationary phases
element? simplest form of matter
compound? contains 2+ elements in a chemically combined fixed proportion
how is periodic table organized? by atomic number
period on periodic table? horizontal row
group on periodic table? vertical column
order of metric unit prefixes? largest to smallest. kilo, _unit_, centi, milli, micro, nano
Convert 2.7m to millimeters. 270mm
scientific notation rules? if the dot's in sight, count left to right. if the dot's not in sight, count right to left starting with the first significant figure.
multiplication/division rules? the value with the least number of significant figures in the starting problem is the most significant figures you can report in your answer
addition/subtraction rules? line up decimals and round to the first column value that is completely lined up
accuracy vs precision? accurate is in the targeted area, precise is together in the same area.
density formula? Density=Mass/Volume
Percent Error formula? Average|(Actual-Observed)/Actual| x 100
Created by: mellonchick



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