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Intro Phys Chem #1

Intro Phys Chem

TermDefinition
Science "the experimental investigation and explanation of natural phenomena"
Technology the application of scientific knowledge
Chemistry the study of matter and the transformations it undergoes
Matter "stuff"; anything that has mass and occupies space
Pure Substance only a single type of matter is present
Mixtures occur when two or more pure substances substances are intermingled with each other
Homogeneous Mixture (Solution) mixtures in which the composition of the mixture is identical throughout
Heterogeneous Mixture a mixture that's composition is not the same throughout
Atom the smallest possible piece of an element
Elemental Substance pure substance that is made from atoms of just one element
Compound pure substances made from atoms of two or more different elements
Chemical Formula indicates the number of atoms of each element that make up the smallest piece of that compound
Physical Transformation transformation that leaves a substance as the same substance but in a different physical state
States of Matter solid,liquid, and gas
Freezing the change from a liquid to a solid
Melting the change from a solid to a liquid
Vaporization the change from a liquid to a vapor
Condensation the change from a vapor to liquid state
Physical properties characterize a pure substance's physical state and behavior
Sublimation the change from a solid to a gas without passing through the liquid state
Chemical Change (Chemical Transformation) a change that causes a pure substance to become a different substance(s)
Chemical Properties properties that can only be described when a pure substance undergoes a chemical change
Reactants starting substances in a chemical reaction
Products new substances formed during a chemical reaction
Chemical Reaction the process that goes on during the conversion of reactants to products
Element the basic building blocks of matter
Exact Number a numerical value with no uncertainty; able to be counted
Measurement use of tools to ascertain the numerical value
Precision the closeness to one another of a series of measurements made on the same object
Accuracy the closeness of the measured result to the true value
Leading Zeros all the zeros that precede the first nonzero digit
Trailing Zeros those that appear to the right of the last nonzero digit in the number
Scientific Notation writing the numerical quantity as a number multiplied by 10 raised to an exponent
SI Units Standardized international system of measurement used everywhere but the US. These include: meter, kilogram, second, kelvin, and mole.
Derived SI Units Combinations of the base SI units. These include: cubic meter, pascal, joule, and coulomb.
Volume Amount of space occupied by an object
Pico- (p) one-trillionth (10^-12)
Nano- (n) one-billionth (10^-9)
Micro- (μ) one-millionth (10^-6)
Milli- (m) one-thousandth (.001)
Centi- (c) one-hundredth (.01)
Deci- (d) one-tenth (.1)
Kilo- (k) one thousand (1000)
Mega- (M) one million (10^6)
giga- (G) one billion (10^9)
Mass quantity of matter in an object
Weight strength of the gravitational force exerted on an object
Density measure of the compactness of matter
Intensive Property a property that does not depend on the amount of material
Extensive Property a property that does depend on the amount present
Created by: smillner