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Chapter 2 : Matter

Matter anything that takes up space (volume) and has mass
physical properties no change in the composition of matter
chemical properties how matter changes in the presence of other matter
rust chemical property
color, shape, density physical properties
odor, taste, conductivity physical properties
melting, freezing, condensing, and vaporizing physical changes
digesting something, burning, rotting chemical changes
pure substances consist of one TYPE of matter
cannot be separated into other kinds of matter by physical means pure substances
elements made of atoms
cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means elements
two or more ELEMENTS chemically BOUND together compounds
Cu, N2, H2 elements
CO2, C6H12O6, NaCl compounds
can be separated by physical means into two or more pure substances mixtures
Homogeneous Mixtures show only one place or appearance throughout a.k.a. solutions
sugar water, air, salt water, cola homogeneous mixtures
Heterogeneous Mixtures have distinct regions called PHASES
Granite & Italian dressing heterogeneous mixtures
an element whose atoms do not combine with other atoms monatomic elements
name the Monatomic Elements Neon, helium, argon, xenon
an element whose atoms bond into two-atom units diatomic elements
name the diatomic elements Hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, florine, chlorine, bromine, iodine
elements whose atoms bond into multi-atom units polyatomic elements
energy the ability to do WORK; related to the force that matter generates and the resulting actions of that force
mechanical energy possessed by objects that are moving (kinetic energy) or have the potential to move (potential energy)
thermal energy heat energy
sound/acoustic energy particles move in a periodic way like waves
electrical energy movement of charged particles
radiant energy radiates out from the sun
wind energy from the wind
electromagnetic energy from the sun
nuclear energy from the nucleus of an atom
chemical energy stored in chemical bonds
exothermic reactions release energy and feel hot to the touch
endothermic reactions absorb energy and feel cold
vibrations from a loud speaker sound energy
a pot of near boiling water thermal energy
a camera flash electromagnetic energy
the source of an explosion of dynamite chemical energy
changes occurring at the center of a star nuclear energy
a rolling ball mechanical energy
thermodynamics the study of the flow of energy, the movement and conversion of energy
Law of Energy Conservation energy can neither be created nor destroyed only changed from one form to another
the first law of thermodynamics matter and energy can neither be created or destroyed only changed from one form to another (E=mc2)
Second Law of Thermodynamics during energy transformations, some enerrgy changes to an UNUSABLE form --> going from order to disorder --> increase entropy
Entropy the measure of DISORDER or randomness in a system --> entropy INCREASES over time
Diffusion evenly spreading out particles over time through motion
drop of food coloring in a beaker diffusion
HIGHER concentration of area to LOWER concentration diffusion
Kinetic energy energy of motion; particles are in CONSTANT motion
depends on both the mass of an object and its velocity kinetic energy
Total Energy kinetic energy + potential energy
Temperature the AVERAGE KE of a system's particles; not related to the number of particles but how much the AVERAGE is per particle
Thermal Energy the sum of the KE of an object's particles; IS related to the number of particles; more particles = more energy
flows from hot to cold thermal energy
the transfer of thermal energy (heat) between two objects heat transfer
unit for energy Joule (J)
BTU British Thermal Unit - amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water to 1 degree F
calorie (cal) the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water to 1 degree Celsius
kilocalorie (C) 1 000 calories -- used to measure energy in food
Celsius scale freezing point of water: 0 boiling point of water: 100
Kelvin Scale freezing point: 273 boiling point: 373
absolute zero the point (0K) at which ALL molecular motion stops completely -- has never been reached
Third Law of Thermodynamics it is IMPOSSIBLE to reach absolute zero
Kinetic Molecular Theory - all matter is made of microscopic particles that are in constant motion - if you add energy to the particles they will speed up - atoms, molecules, and ions are attracted to each other by electrical forces keeping them from flying apart
Solids have little energy compared to the attractive forces between the particles, but the particles still vibrate
attractive forces OVERPOWER the KE of the particles solids
particles are in fixed positions or shape solids
in-compressible atoms resist being squeezed together more; solids
the particles have more energy than a solid but the attractive forces still hold the particles together liquids
have limited motion and the ability to FLow they are FLuids liquids
near in-compressible because the atoms are already close together liquids
DO NOT have a fixed shape, but change to fit container liquids
high KE gases
move to FILL container through diffusion gases
no fixed position or shape gases
highly compressible gases
particles FLOW because they are FLUIDS gases
most common state of matter plasma
condensation gas to liquid
vaporization liquid to gas
freezing liquid to solid
melting solid to liquid
sublimation solid to gas (DRY ICE)
deposition gas to solid
the melting point is identical to the freezing point of a substance TRUE
thermal energy, unlike internal energy, does not account for the potential energies of the particles in a system TRUE
a chemical property of a substance cannot be determined without causing or attempting to cause a chemical change to occur in the substance TRUE
Created by: olive215



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