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Chem Chapt 2

Chemistry Chapter 2 - Note based

Anything that takes up space and has mass Mass
Distinguishing characteristics of matter related to the physical relationships among the particles of matter Properties
Physical properties are measured _________ _________ the composition of the matter WITHOUT changing
Color, shape, density, odor, taste, conductivity, malleability, and ductility Physical properties
Related to how matter changes in the presence of other matter and are measured by a change in composition when a new substance is formed from the old one Chemical Properties
Examples of Chemical Properties How easily something rusts, burns, rots, or decomposes
Most electrically conductive metal Silver
Poor conductor of heat wood
Physically changes can often be ______ reversed
Solid to Liquid Melting
Liquid to Solid Freezing
Gas to Liquid Condensing
Liquid to Gas Vaporizing
Melting, freezing, condensing, and vaporizing are examples of Physical Changes
Chemical changes change the _____ of the matter identity
This kind of change cannot be reversed easily. Chemical change
Consist of one type of matter Pure Substances
Pure substances cannot be ____ into other kinds of matter by physical means separated
Made of atoms and are represented by symbols - cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means Elements
Two or more elements chemically bound together Compounds
Can be separated by physical means into two or more pure substances Mixtures
Show only one phase or appearance throughout Homogeneous Mixture
Have distinct regions called phases Heterogeneous Mixtures
The regions or layers within a heterogeneous mixture phases
Sugar water, air, cola Homogeneous
Granite, Italian dressing Heterogeneous
An element whose atoms do not combine with other atoms Monatomic elements
The monatomic elements: Neon, Helium, Argon, Xenon,
An element whose atoms bond into two-atom units Diatomic
The diatomic elements : Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Florine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine
Elements whose atoms bond into multi-atom units Polyatomic Elements
Element names are approved by... IUPAC - International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Made up of two or more different elements that have been chemically bonded together Compounds
The smallest individual units in many compounds. Made up of the same element or two different elements Molecules
Represent compounds and tell what type of element and how many atoms of each type of elements are in an individual unit of the compound Formulas
The ability to do work and it is related to the force that matter generates and the resulting actions of that force Energy
Possessed by objects that are moving or have the potential to move Mechanical energy
Heat energy Thermal energy
Particles move in a periodic way like waves Sound/Acoustic Enegry
Movement of charged particles Electrical Energy
Radiates from the sun Radiant energy
From the wind Wind Energy
From the sun Electromagnetic Energy
From the nucleus of an atom Nuclear Energy
Stored in chemical bonds Chemical Energy
Release energy and feel hot to the touch (like hand warmers) Exothermic reactions
Absorb energy and feel cold (ice pack) Endothermic reactions
The study of the flow of energy, the movement and conversion of energy Thermodynamics
Energy and matter can neither be created nor destroyed, only changed from one form to another Law of Energy Conservation (AKA the First Law of Thermodynamics)(E=mc^2)
During energy transformations, some energy changes to an unusable form Second Law of Thermodynamics
The measure of disorder or randomness in a system Entropy
Entropy _____ over time increases
Evenly spreading out particles over time through motion Diffusion
Energy of motion Kinetic Energy
Particles are in ______ motion constant
Kinetic energy depends on _____ and _____ mass and velocity
Kinetic Energy + Potential Energy = Total Internal Energy
The average kinetic energy of a system's particles Temperature
Thermal energy is the _____ of the kinetic energy of an object's particles sum
Thermal energy ___ related to the number of particles since more particles mean more heat energy IS
Temperature ____ related to the number of particles since it deals with how much the average is per particle ISN'T
The transfer of thermal energy between two objects heat transfer
The amount of heat transferred is determined by what two things? The temperature difference and the mass of the hotter object
Unit for energy Joule
The English unit for thermal energy BTU (British Thermal Unit)
The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius calorie
1000 calories (used on food labels) kilocalorie
Freezing point of water is 0 and the boiling point is 100 Celsius Scale
Freezing point is 273 and boiling point is 373 - this includes the idea of absolute zero Kelvin Scale
The point at which all molecular motion stops (has NOT been reached Absolute zero
States that it is impossible to reach absolute zero Third Law of Thermodynamics
Why are Kelvins never negative? Nothing is colder than absolute zero; therefore, nothing is cold enough to absorb the energy in order to reach a negative number
Celsius and Kelvin scale have the ____ _______ between the degree points same distance
All matter is made of microscopic particles that are in constant motion Kinetic-Molecular Theory
If you add energy, the particles will ____ ___ speed up
Atoms, molecules, and ions are attracted to each other by what? Electrical forces
Have little energy - particles are in fixed positions - incompressible Solids
Atoms resist being squeezed together more Incompressible
More energy - ability to flow - near incompressible - do not have a fixed shape Liquid
High Kinetic Energy - move to fill space through diffusion - no fixed position - highly compressible - particles flow Gases
Formed when enough thermal energy is added to a gas, and the electrons of atoms are stripped away from the nucleus. Plasma
Plasma consists of electrons, ions, and neutral atoms traveling at extremely ____ speeds. high
Plasma can be found in... the sun, thermonuclear fusion, neon signs, fluorescent lighting, and plasma screen TVs
Plasma is the most ______ state of matter common
Sold to gas Sublimation
Gas to solid Deposition
Created by: DarkPeriwinkle



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