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Conceptual Physics

Introduction to Physics & Chapter 4

Units A quantity that is ‘standard’ (known and used by many) for a particular measurement.
Fundamental Units They can not be expressed in term of other units.
Prefixes They are simply a number, specifically they are “powers of ten” and are expressed as letter symbols.
Error It refers to the difference between a measured value and the true value.
% Error |True value – Measured value| x 100 Accepted value (true value)
Accuracy It shows how close the answer is to the true value (accepted value).
Uncertainty It shows how limited your measuring device is.
% Uncertainty Uncertainty x 100 Measurement
Precision It shows how finite, or close, the measurement is.
Significant Figures They are the numbers in any measurement that we know with certainty, plus one digit that is uncertain.
Scientific Notation a method for expressing a given quantity as a number having significant digits necessary for a specified degree of accuracy, multiplied by 10 to the appropriate power.
Relative An object is moving is if its position is relative to a fixed point that is changing.
Speed It is a measure of how fast something is moving in a certain amount of time.
Instantaneous Speed The speed at any instant.
Average Speed The total distance covered divided by the time interval.
Velocity Speed in a given direction.
Acceleration The rate at which velocity changes. Fomula: change of velocity divided by the time interval.
Free Fall When there is no air resistance, and gravity is the only thing affecting a falling object.
Elapsed Time It is time that has passed since the beginning of any motion.
Scalar Quantity It has no direction associated with it. (Speed is one)
Vector Quantity It specifies both magnitude (size) and direction. (Acceleration is one)
Created by: stea124