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AQA A1 Basic Organic

AQA Unit 1 Basic Organic

QuestionAnswer
What is a HydroCarbon? A compound containing Carbon and Hydrogen ONLY
What is a saturated hydrocarbon? A hydrocarbon with single bonds only
What is an unsaturated Hydrocarbon? A compound that contains C=C double bonds (tip: C=O double bonds do not count as unsaturated!)
What is an aliphatic hydrocarbon? A compound with carbon atoms are joined as straight or branched chains
What is an aliphatic hydrocarbon? A compound with carbon atoms are joined in a ring structure
What is the bond angle around a Carbon in a saturated Hydrocarbon? 109
What is the shape around a Carbon atom in a saturated compound? Tetrahedral
What is the shape around a Carbon atom in an unsaturated compound? Trigonal planal (ie flat!)
What is the bond angle around a Carbon in an unsaturated Hydrocarbon? 120
What is a functional group? Part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical reaction (tip: there are no functional groups in a saturated hydrocarbon)
What is a homologous series? a family of organic compounds containing the same functional group but that differs by CH2 between each successive member
What is the general formula of AlkAnes? C2H2n+2
What is the general formula of AlkEnes? C2H2n
How would you name an AlkAne? (1)Identify the longest chain/stem (and draw a box) [tip this make take a long time: get it right!](2)circle each branch/alkyl(3)number each branch/alkyl so that numbers are as small as(4)alkyl are then written before stem alphabetically, numbers in front
How would you name an AlkEne? (1)Identify the longest chain/stem CONTAINING C=C (and draw a box)(2) number so that the first C on the C=C bond is as small as(3)circle alkyl/branches(4)alkyl are then written alphabetically, numbers in front
How would you name an Alcohol? (1)Identify the longest chain/stem CONTAINING O-H (and draw a box)(2) number so that the C attached to the O-H bond is as small as(3)circle alkyl/branches(4)alkyl are then written alphabetically, numbers in front
How would you name a HalogenoAlkane? (1)Identify the longest chain/stem (and draw a box)(2)circle alkyl/branches(3) number so that the C attached to the Halogen bond are as small as (4)halogen and alkyl are then written as prefix, ALPHABETICALLY, numbers in front
What is the homologous series of a compound containing a COOH group? Carboxylic Acid
What is the homologous series of a compound containing a C=O group? Aldehyde if the C=O is at the end of a chain (-CHO) or Ketone in the middle
What is the functional group here: CH3-CH2-CHO? Aldehyde (Propanal)
What is the functional group here: CH3-CH2-COOH? Carboxylic Acid (Propanoic Acid)
What is the functional group here: CH3-CO-CH2? Ketone (Propanone)
What does the general formula show? The number of atoms for each element in a homologous series (ie: CnH2n for alkenes or CycloAlkanes)
What does the empirical formula show? The SMALLEST ratio/number of atoms for each element (ie CH2; this compound does not exist, but it is the SMALLEST ratio for C2H4 or C6H12 for example)
What does the molecular formula show? The ACTUAL number of atoms for each element (ie: C3H6O; that could be for propanal CH3-CH2-CH=O or propanol CH3-CO-CH3); NEVER SHOW the functional group: ie CH3-OH, but CH4O
What does the displayed formula show? The number of atoms for each element and the BONDS between atoms (tip: ALWAYS SHOW O-H!)
What does the structural formula show? The minimal detail to draw the molecules: Alkyls are shown as CH3/Ch2/CH and functional groups as OH/CHO/CO/COOH
What does the skeletal formula show? The bonds, other than C-H
How do you work out the empirical formula from mass of each element? (1)for each element, divide mass by its RAM(2)divide each number by the smallest(3)check if “special” ratio: ie 1:2.49 or 1:0.74(4)write the SYMBOLS followed by the numbers (ie write not “1:2”; but “CH2”)
How do you work out the molecular formula from mass (or percentage) of each element and RMM? (1)Start as per empirical formula;(2) work out the mass of the empirical formula;(3)compare to the RMM given in text to work out the number of times the empirical formula is contained in the RMM
How do you draw the skeletal formula from (any other) formula? Always start from the displayed formula; rub off C-H bonds (tip: leave O-H bonds!!!); place a dot for each carbon; zig-zag if necessary
What is the general formula of Alcohols? Cn H2n+1 OH or Cn H2n+2 O
How do you draw an Alkene, given the name (for example 2-Methyl 3-Chloro Pent-2ene)? Draw the longest chain (here 5C); on the number-shown-before-ENE (here 2nd C) start the double bond (ie double bond is between 2nd and 3rd Carbon;then draw all the other branches on the appropriate Carbon; complete each Carbon so that a C has 4 bonds
Created by: UrsulineChem