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Magnet Chemistry 2

Flashcards for wheeler magnet unit two chemistry

How are ions formed? An ion is formed by the gain or loss of electrons from outside of the nucleus.
What is the loss of a positively charged electron? a cation
What is the gain of a negatively charged electron? an anion
If you have an ion with 22 protons, 26 neutrons, and 19 electrons, what would be the chemical symbol (including mass #)? 48 22 Ti +3
What is the primary reason for nuclear chemistry? The main reason is the ratio of neutrons to the protons are off balance.
When is an atom most stable? An atom is most stable when the ratio is 1:1.
What is the maximum ratio of stability for an atom? It is between 1.5-1
What are the four types of radiation? They are alpha particles, beta particles, gamma ray, and a positron.
What is the most dangerous radiation if consumed (inhaled)? the most dangerous is the alpha particle.
How fast does an alpha particle travel? It travels about 1/10 the speed of light
How fast does a beta particle travel? It travels 1/4 the speed of light
what kind of radiation is the gamma ray? The gamma ray is high energy electromagnetic radiation.
What always accompanies alpha and beta particles? a gamma ray
What kind of radiations travels at the speed of light? a gamma ray
What kind of radiation has the highest penetrating ability? the gamma ray
what can stop the gamma ray? a heavy lead shield
What is fusion? Fusion is the combining of two nuclei to form one nucleus of larger mass.
What kind of reaction does fusion require? It requires thermonuclear reaction, which needs a temperature of 40,000,000 K to sustain fusion.
What is 1 gram of fusion fuel equal to? 20 tons of coal.
What occurs naturally in stars? fusion
What is fission? Fission is the splitting of a nucleus into two or more smaller nuclei.
What is 1 grams of 235U equal to? 3 tons of coal
What is half-life? Half life is the time required for half the atoms of a radioactive nuclide to decay. The shorter the half-life, the less stable the nuclide is.
Who is generally credited with putting for the first ideas about atomic structure? Democritus
What did Democritus state in his "theory" about atomic structure? He stated that all of matter consisted of invisible particles called "atoms" (Model is simple particle)
Who proposed the first serious theories on the structure of matter? Dalton
What are Dalton's theories that still hold true today known as? Dalton's Atomic Theory
what does the law of Constant proportions say? It states that the relative numbers and kinds of atoms remain constant for any given compound.
What does the law of Multiple Proportions state? It states that if two atoms are capable of combining to form more than one type of product, they do so in a ratio of small whole numbers.
What statement did Dalton make that was untrue? He said "The atom is indestructible."
What are made up of subatomic particles? Protons, neutrons and electrons
What was the first subatomic particle to be discovered through the experiments performed with cathode ray tubes? electrons
What is the mass number? the mass number is the number of protons added to the number of electrons.
what is the atomic number? the atomic number is the number of protons or electrons
How are isotopes different from other atoms. They differ only in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.
Who discovered the electron? J.J. Thomas discovered the electron.
What is the Plum Pudding Model? It is a positively charged shape that has randomly scattered electrons within it.
What did Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment prove? His experiment proved the existance of the positively-charged nucleus.
Who discovered the neutron? James Chadwick discovered the neutron in 1932.
What was implemented to avoid expression of long and difficult numbers used in atomic masses? It is the atomic mass unit.
Why do we use average atomic mass? We use it because most elements exist in nature as a mixture of isotopes and we must express a large sample of the elements in an easier form to understand.
How is Rutherford's model of the atom different from the "Plum Pudding" model? Rutherford added a nucleus.
What are the five types of radio-active decay? 1. Alpha Emission 2. Beta Emission 3. Positron Emission 4. Electron Capture 5. Gamma Decay
Created by: Paradox2382