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Chapter Two Chem

Matter anything that takes up space and has mass, created by God out of nothing
Properties related to the physical relationships among the particles of matter
Physical Properties measured without changing the composition of the matter
Chemical Properties related to how matter changes in the presence of other matter, measured by a change in composition when a new substance is formed from the old one (how easily does something rust, burn, rot, decompose)
Physical Changes changes that occur in matter without changing the identity of the material, can often be reversed
color physical property
shape physical property
density physical property
ductility physical property
flammability chemical property
solubility physical property
supports combustion chemical property
sour taste physical property
melting point physical property
odor physical property
can neutralize a base chemical property
how easily does it rot, burn, or decompose? chemical
Chemical Changes change the identity of the matter, start off with one compound and end up with something different with different chemical and physical properties, not easily reversed
Pure SUbstances consist of one type of matter, cannot be separated into other kinds of matter by physical means, elements, compounds
Mistures can be separated by physical means into 2 or more pure substances, divided into homogeneous and heterogeneous
Elements made of atoms and represented by symbols (H, Cu, N), cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means
Compounds two or more elements chemically bound together (water, carbon dioxide, sugar, table salt)
Homogeneous Mixtures show only one phase (appearance) throughout, also called SOLUTIONS, sugar water, air, salt water, cola
Heterogeneous Mixtures have distinct regions called phases, granite, Italian dressing
Monatomic Elements an element whose atoms do not combine with other atoms, one atom in the formula, Ne, He, Ar, Xe
Diatomic Elements an element whose atoms bond into two-atom units, H, N,O, F, Cl, Br, I
Polyatomic Elements elements whose atoms bond into multi-atom units
Molecules smallest individual units in many compounds, made of two or more elements chemically bound together, can be made of the same element or two different elements
Formulas represent compounds and tell what type of element and how many atoms of each type of element are in an individual unit of the compound
Coefficients the numbers in front of a formula and refer to the entire unit
Energy the ability to do work, related to the force that matter generates and the resulting actions of that force
Mechanical Energy possessed by objects that are moving (kinetic energy) or have the potential to move (potential energy)
thermal energy heat energy
sound (acoustic) energy particles move in a periodic way like waves
electrical energy movement of charged particles
radiant energy radiates out from the sun
wind energy from the wind
electromagnetic energy from the sun
nuclear energy from the nucleus of an atom
chemical energy stored in chemical bonds
exothermic reactions release energy and feel hot to the touch (hand warmers)
endothermic reactions absorb energy and feel cold to the touch (cold packs)
thermodynamics the study of the flow of energy, the movement and conversion of energy
Law of Energy Conservation (First Law of Thermodynamics) energy can neither be created nor destroyed only changed from one form to another (E=mc2)
Second Law of Thermodynamics during energy transformations, some energy changes to an unusable form, go from order to disorder
entropy the measure of disorder or randomness in a system, entropy increases over time
system a portion of the universe under study
diffusion evenly spreading out particles over time through motions (food coloring in water)
kinetic energy energy of motion, depends on mass and velocity of an object
total internal energy of an object =KE + PE
temperature the average KE of a system's particles, IS NOT related to number of particles but how much the average is per particle
thermal energy the sum of KE of an object's particles, IS related to number of particles, more particles=more heat energy, flows rom HOT to COLD, to cool something down it has to "send" its heat to a cooler object
heat transfer the transfer of thermal energy between two objects, amount of heat transferred is determined by temp difference between the two objects as well as the mass of the hotter object
Created by: 100000431271587



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