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Chemistry Terms

Chemistry Terms and Vocab

TermDefinition
Accuracy the exactness of a measurement (need two things: true/accepted value and observed/expiremental value)
Precision the closeness of a set of numbers to each other (need several data points)
Significant Figures indicate the precision of a measurement
Scientific Notation shorthand for long numbers... A x 10^n
Mass the quantity of matter an object contains
Weight the pull on an object by gravity
Density how tightly packed the particles of an object are (D = m/v)
Volume how much space something takes up (V = m/d)
Specific Gravity comparison of the density of a substance to the desity of a ref. sub., generally water, at the same temp. SG = den of sub /den of ref (both in g/cm^3) NO UNIT
Kelvin conversions K = C + 273 C = K - 273
Chemistry the study of the compostion of substances and the changes they undergo
Pure chem. knowledge for its own sake
Organic chem. study of all things with carbon
Inorganic chem. study of all things without carbon
Analytical chem. study of the composition of sub.
Physical chem. study of the behavior of chemicals
Biochem. chem. of living organisms
Theory a tested hypothesis, can't be proved
Scientific Law a statement of a natural fact, no explination
Matter anything that takes up space and has mass
Substance a particular kind of matter that has a uniform and definate composition
Physical property a quality or condition that can be observed or measured w/out changing sub.'s comp.
Solid has definate shape and volume
Liquid has def. volume, no definate shape
Gas no definate volume or shape
Vapor something that is currently in a gaseous state, but is usually liquid or solid at room temperature
Mixture a physical blend of two or more substances
Phase any part of a system with uniform comp and properties
Elements the simplest forms of matter that can exist under normal lab conditions
Heat the amount of energy that is transferred b/c of a change in temp.
Isotope an atom of an element that has the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons (Chemically the same as normal- e + p det. prop.)
QMM Quantum Mechanical Model- the most current model of the atom. It explains the behavior of electrons. Approx. area, rather than exact path.
electron configuration elem. symbol + electrons for each sublevel using superscripts
Aufbau's Principle electrons seek to fill the area with the least energy first
Orbital Notation elem. sybol + lines and arrows to show elec. for each sublevel
Pauli's Exclusion Principle no two elec. can have the same set of quantum numbers (arrows can't point same direction. Up first.)
Hund's Rule when there are several orbitals of equal energy, one electron in each before adding second to any.
Valence electrons the electrons on the highest energy level of an atom
Properties of metals high conductivity, high luster when clean, ductile (can be drawn into wire), malleable (can be flattened), solid at rm. temp. EXCEPT MERCURY
Properties of Nonmetals nonlustrous, poor conductors, some gases, some solids, ONE liquid (Bromine)
Mettalloids on border between metals and nonmetals, properties of both
Ion an atom or group of atoms with a charge, due to extra or missing electrons
Cation positive charge, formed from a metal
Anion negative charge, formed from a nonmetal
Compound composed of two or more different elements chemically combined
Molecule an electrically neutral group of atoms that act as a unit
Molecular compound made up of molecules
Ionic compound made up of ions
Solution another name for a homogeneous mixture
Octet Rule atoms will gain or lose electrons in order to match the nearest noble gas
Formula Unit the lowest whole number ratio of ions in an ionic compound
Law of Definate Proportions the identity of a substance depends on the ratio of its elements
Stoichiometry the calculation of quantities in chemical equations
Electronegativity the tendency of atoms of an element to attract electrons when the atom is chemically combined with another atom.
Created by: Bookish