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CHEM 245- Unit 3

QuestionAnswer
alcohol nucleophilic pattern primary= most; tertiary=least
ethers are called what if another functional group is present? alkoxy
alcohol solubility/polarity pattern larger=less soluble and less polar
alcohol acidity pattern as R becomes more electron withdrawing, the more acidic the alcohol becomes
hydride sources (2) NaBH4 (weak) , LiAlH4 (strong)
is ketone product observed in Grignard rxns w/ carboxylic ester? no
Grignard reagents will not add into carboxylic acids
alcohol dehydrations work well with ` secondary and tertiary alcohols
alcohol dehydrations produce alkene products
tertiary alcohols dehydrate via E1
secondary alcohols dehydrate via E2
oxidation of primary alcohols= aldehydes or carboxylic acids
oxidation of secondary alcohols= ketones
oxidation of tertiary alcohols= no reaction (no H with which to react on -OH carbon)
2 mild oxidants DMP, TEMPO + NaOCl
Ether synthesis mechanism SN2 for primary, secondary, and aromatic alkoxides E2 for tertiary alkoxides
ubiquinone oxidizes NADH to NAD+
mass spectroscopy detects the mass by using the mass/charge ratio (charge=+1)
electron ionization bombart w/ electrons; ejects e-'s from the molecule (used for mass spec)
electrospray ionization molecule w/ Lewis basic sites dissolved in mildly acidic solution; dispersed as an aerosol (less harsh than electron ionization; used for mass spec)
visible range 380-780
amplitude midpoint-peak
intensity of light= proportional to the square of its amplitude
C= 3.00x10^8
speed= wavelengthxfrequency
IR units cm^-1 (wavenumbers)
IR spectroscopy all bonds stretch, bend, vibrate; energy absorbed if matches energy of a certain functional group (OH= big higher # stretch)
UV-Vis spectrometry detects conjugated pi systems
NMR magnetic field lines up spins of the nuclei in the direction or opposite direction of magnetic field (higher energy=opposite)
CH3-CH2-OH: how many peaks? 3
n+1 rule neighboring hydrogens +1 = multiplicity of each peak
intensity of peaks in NMR tell you how many hydrogens are in each environment
how to determine oxidation state how many bonds to heteroatoms (NOS) or halogens (F, Cl, Br, I) an atom has
aldehyde nomenclature -al
ketone nomenclature -one
Created by: melaniebeale