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Unit 4 Chem Exam

Acids and Bases, Oxidation, and Reduction

Characteristics of acids causes litmus paper to turn red, taste sour (lemon juice), dissolves metals, producing bubbles of hydrogen gas, neutralizes bases
Characteristics of bases causes litmus paper to turn blue, taste bitter, feels slippery on the skin (soapy), neutralizes acids
Arrhenius acid a molecular substance that breaks up in aqueous solution into hydrogen ions (H+) and anions.
Arrhenius base defined as a substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) in aqueous solution
Bronsted-Lowry acid proton donor
Bronsted-Lowry base proton acceptor
strong acid an acid that ionizes completely in water; a potent proton donor.
weak acid An acid that ionizes only slightly in water; a poor proton donor.
strong base A base that dissociates completely in water; a potent proton acceptor.
weak base A base that ionizes only slightly in water; a poor proton acceptor.
neutralization the reaction of an acid with a base.
Kw (ion product constant of water) Kw = [H3O+] [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-14 (at 25ÂșC)
pH pH = -log[H+]
acid rain Rain having a pH less than 5.6.
buffer a mixture that reacts with either acid or base to keep the pH of a solution essentially constant.
oxidation an increase in oxidation number; combination of an element or compound with oxygen; loss of hydrogen; loss of electrons.
reduction a decrease in oxidation number; a gain of electrons; a loss of oxygen; a gain of hydrogen.
half reaction a reduction half reaction is the part of a redox reaction that involves a gain of electrons.
oxidizing agent a substance that causes oxidation and is itself reduced.
reducing agent a substance that causes reduction and is itself oxidized
anode the electrode at which oxidation occurs.
cathode the electrode at which reduction occurs.
corrosion the unwanted oxidation of metals
Created by: nescordt