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CHEM 245- Unit 1

deuterium hydrogen with one neutron
triterium hydrogen with two neutrons
electronegativity/bonding pneumonic F-O-N-Cl-Br-I-C-S-H-P
single carbon bond hybridization sp3
double carbons bond hybridization sp2
triple carbon bond hybridization sp
C-C geometry tetrahedral
C=C geometry planar
C≡C geometry linear
Are single or multiple bonds more reactive? Single; longer bond length, lower bond energy
Bronsted-Lowry definition acid= H+ donation; base= H+ accepting
Lewis definition acid= lone pair accepting, base= lone pair donation
what 2 types of reactions to alkanes partake in? combustion and halogenation
methyl 1
ethyl 2
propyl 3
butyl 4
pentyl 5
hexa 6
hepta 7
oxta 8
sigma bonds ____ _____ rotate freely (120)
cyclo butane, pentane, and methane have a lot of ring strain
1, 3 diaxial interactions methyl groups prefer to be in equatorial positions because of this
A-values higher A value= less likely that the substituent will be axial (like delta G)
diene 2 double bonds
triene 3 double bonds
do -enes or -ynes adopt chair structures? nope!
spontaneous interconversion interconversion of cis and trans structures with the addition of H+
Z same
E opposite
4 types of organic reactions addition, elimination, substitution, rearrangement
Two ways bonds break symmetrical (homolytic); unsymmetrical (heterolytic)
Two ways bonds form symmetrical, unsymmetrical
Symmetrical bond formation (mechanism) 2 free radicals form one new product
Unsymmetrical bond formation (mechanism) 2 bonding electrons donated by 1 reactant
Radical reactions symmetrical
Polar reactions unsymmetrical (more important in ochem!)
Exergonic -ΔG
Endergonic +ΔG
forming a carbocation is ____ Ea than quenching it higher
Catalyst provides lower Ea paths for high Ea reactions that would normally not proceed
Additions of H-X: what is X? Cl, Br, or I (halogens)
Markovnikov's rule H attaches to C with fewer alkyl substituents; X attaches to C with more alkyl substituents
Carbocation stability more alkyl substituents= more stability
What is the product (functional group) when alcohol is added to an alkene? ether (where the carbocation forms in intermediate)
Conjugated a series of 4 or more sp2 hybridized carbons bound in a row (double bonds and single switch off)
5 rules for resonance structures individual forms are imaginary, they differ in placement of pi bonds of non-bonding electrons only, they don't have to be equivalent, must obey valence, resonance=stability
alkenes and alkynes are both ___ nucleophilic (at their pi bonds)
halogenations of cycloalkenes produce only 1, 2 trans dihalo products
Lindlar's catalyst mono addition of H2 to alkynes
Lindlar's forms ___ cis alkene
adding Br2... always trans
What functional group forms in alkene hydration? OH
What functional group forms in alkyne hydration? =O
constitutional isomer different connections in the molecule
stereoisomer same connections, different 3-D structure
Created by: melaniebeale



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