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Gen Chem II Ch. 11


Dispersion Force An instantaneous dipole on any one helium atom induces instantaneous dipoles on neighboring atoms, which then attract one another (a mini chain reaction).
Hydrogen Bonding When H bonds to F, O, or N, the charge is huge and the attraction is strong.
Ion-Dipole Attraction Ions from an ionic compound are attracted to the dipole of polar molecules.
The Concept of Condensation Some molecules in vapor will lose energy through molecular collisions. Some molecules get captured back into the liquid when they collide with it. Some may stick together and form droplets of liquid.
Volatile Liquids Liquids that evaporate easily.
Nonvolatile Liquids Liquids that do not evaporate easily.
Heat of Vaporization (DHvap) The amount of heat energy.
Vapor Pressure The pressure exerted by the vapor when it's in dynamic equilibrium with its liquid.
Boiling Point The temperature required to have the vapor pressure of the liquid = 1 atm.
Sublimation When surface molecules with sufficient energy may break free from the surface and become a gas.
Deposition The capturing of vapor molecules into a solid.
Heat of Fusion (DHfus) The amount of heat energy required to melt one mole of a solid.
Triple Point The temperature/pressure conditions where all three states exist simultaneously.
Crystalline Solids Have a very regular geometric arrangement of their particles.
X-Ray Diffraction Determines the arrangement of particles and the distances between them.
Crystal Lattice The arrangement of the particles in a crystalline solid.
Unit Cell The smallest unit that shows the pattern of arrangement for all particles.
Energy Band When a large number of molecular orbitals have approximately the same energy.
Band Theory Energy bands are formed when the structures of metals and covalent network solids result in every atom's orbital being shared by the entire structure.
Translational Freedom The ability to move from one position in space to another.
Rotational Freedom The ability to reorient a particle's direction in space.
Vibrational Freedom The ability to oscillate about a particular point in space.
Crystalline Solids Have their particles arranged in an orderly geometric pattern (salt and diamonds).
Amorphous Solids Have particles that do not show a regular geometric pattern over a long range (plastic and glass).
The Concept of London Dispersion Forces Fluctuations in the electron distribution of atoms and molecules result in temporary dipole. Regions with excess electron density have partial (-) charges. Regions with excess electron density have partial (+) charges. It's the force that results.
Viscosity Resistance of a liquid to flow
Supercritical Fluid At some temperature, the meniscus between the liquid and vapor disappears and the states commingle to form a supercritical fluid.
Critical Temperature The temperature needed to form a supercritical fluid.
Critical Pressure The pressure needed to form a supercritical fluid.
Lattice Point Each particle in a unit cell.
Coordination Number The number of other particles each particle is in contact with.
Packing Efficiency Percentage of volume in the unit cell occupied by particles.
Molecular Solids Solids whose composite particles are molecules.
Ionic Solids Solids whose composite particles are ions.
Atomic Solids Solids whose composite particles are atoms.
Created by: 1387636308