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Solution homogeneous mixture of 2+ substances in a single physical state
solute The substance that is dissolved in a solution
solvent It is the substance in which the solute is dissolved.
Miscible soluble, able to be mixed to form a solution
Immiscible the property where two substances are not capable of combining to form a homogeneous mixture
Solubility the ability of one substance to dissolve in another
Insoluble incapable of dissolving in a solvent
Unsaturated When referring to solutions, being able to dissolve more solute. When referring to organic compounds, containing double or triple carbon-carbon bonds
Saturated A substance in which the atoms are linked by single bonds
Supersaturated the condition in which a liquid has been cooled to a temperature below that at which crystallization normally would occur, without the solid resulting
Factors affecting solubility nature of solute and solvent, temperature, pressure
factors affecting rate of solvation surface area, stirring, temperature
concentration measure of how much solute is dissolved in a specific amount of solvent or solution
% by mass= mass of solute/ mass of solution x100
%by volume= volume component/total moles solution x100
molarity moles of solute/liters of solution
mole fraction= moles of component/ total moles solution
molality moles of solute/ kg of solvent
dilution M1V1=M2V2 (M is molarity here)
Colligative properties depends on concentration of particles in a solution, not upon identity of those particles
Freezing Point depression the phenomenon that occurs when the freezing point of a liquid (a solvent) is lowered by adding another compound to it, such that the solution has a lower freezing point than the pure solvent
Boiling Point elevation
Vapor Pressure reduction
Increased Osmotic Pressure
Chemical Kinetics -the area concerned with speed at which reactoins occur -reaction rate is the change in concentration of reactants and rpoducts in a certain amount of time
Collision theory reaction rate depends on the collision between reacting particles
Successful collision occur when particles -collide with each other -have correct orientation -have enough kinetic energy to break bonds
activation energy energy required for a reaction ot occur; depends on reactants
low Ea= ____ reaction rate fast
Energy diagram shows the energy changes that occur throughout a chemical reaction; describes the reaction pathway (mechanism), need to know how to label: reactant energy level, product energy level, activation energy, net energy change
5 factors that affet rate of reaction -nature of reactants -temperature -concentration -surface area -catalysts
reversible reactions A+B-> C+D (forward C+D-> A+B (reverse)
Equilibrium rates are = while concentrations are not rates determined by concentrations and activation energy
Homogenous equilibria all reactions and products are in the same state
heterogeneous equilibria equilibrium conditions for reactants thatinvolve substances in more than 1 state
Calculating equilibrium constant 1. Balance equation 2. Write equilibrium expression 3. Substitute the equilibrium concentrations 4. Do the math K>1 favors right, K<1 favors left, K= 1 equal
LeChatelier's Principle -if a stress is applied to a system at equilibriu, the equilibrium will shift to reduce stress
3 types of stress -change in concentration -change in pressure: changes volume, system moves depending on moles of gas -change in temp: treat heat as a reactant/product, chagne sin temp like changing conc of heat
Reaction Quotient (Q) the proportion of products/reactants at a specific point in time
Naming of Acids and Bases -Bases: namedlike ionic compounds -Acids names depend on ion endings
ate= -ic acid
ite= -ous acid
ide hydro -ic acid
titration analytical method in which a standard solution is used to determine the concentration of unknown solution, based on a neutralization reaction
MVn=MVn (Molarity, Volume and Number of H+ (acids) or OH- (bases)
Monoprotic acids that contain one ionizable hydrogen
diprotic acids that contain two ionizable hydrogens
triprotic acids contain three ionizable hydrogens
amphoteric substances can act as either acid or base depending on what they are mixed with
Arrhenius H+ producer OH- producer
Bronsted-Lowry H+ donor H+ acceptor
Lewis electron pair acceptor, electron pair donor
When an acid loses an H+ it becomes a conjugate ____ base
When it gains an H+ it becomes a conjugate ____ acid
pH= log(H3O+)
pOH= log(OH-)
pH+ pOH= 14
hydrocarbons organic compounds made of only carbon and hydrogen - 3 categories: alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes -know how to name alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes
Created by: AlanaR