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Thermochemistry the study of energy changes that occur during chemical reactions and changes in state
Energy the ability to do work
Heat energy that transfers from one object to another because of a temperature difference between the objects
Temperature the property of matter which reflects the quantity of energy of motion of the component particles
System a part of the universe on which you focus your attention
Surrounding everything in the universe outside of the system
Enthalpy the heat content of a system at constant pressure
Fusionand Solidification Combining lighter atomic nuclei to form a heavier nucleus. Energy is released.
Hess's Law if you add two or more thermo chemical equations to give a final equation, then you also add the heats of reaction to give the final heat of reaction
Exothermic a process that releases heat to its surroundings
Endothermic a process that absorbs heat from the surroundings
Law of Conservation of Energy in any chemical or physical process, energy is neither created nor destroyed
Calories a unit of thermal energy equal to 4.184 joules or the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of liquid water 1°C at standard pressure
Heat Capacity the amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of an object exactly
? J = 1 Cal 4.184
Calorimeter an insulated device used to measure the absorption or release of heat in chemical or physical processes
Thermochemical Equations a chemical equation that includes the enthalpy change
Vaporization the phase transition of a substance from the liquid phase to the gas phase
Condensation change in the state of matter from the gas phase to the liquid phase
Heat of Solution
Kinetic molecular theory explains the behavior of particles of matter -all matter is made up of particles that have mass - for gas, distance between particles is very large - these particles are in constant random motion
Kinetic molecular theory part 2 -all collisions are elastic between particles, there is no loss of energy -the temp of a substance is determined by the avg kinetic energy of particles
two assumptions about gases -gas particles have no attraction forces between one another
the volume of the particles is insignificant compared to the volume of the gas
Units of pressure 1atm=760mmHG/Torr=101.3 kPa
Absolute Zero the temp where all particles motion has stopped (-273*C)
Avogadro's Law 1 mol of any gas at STP=22.4 L
Diffusion spreading of gas molecules throughout a container until evenly distributed, movement towards lower concentration
Effusion passing of gas molecules through a tiny opening in a container
Boyles Law P inversely proportional to V, p1v1=p2v2
Charles' Law V directly proportional V1/t1=v2/v2
Dalton's Law Pt is the sum of partial pressures of components Pt=Pa+Pb+Pct
Ideal Gas Law Combined Proportional PV=NRT
Gay-Lussac's Law P directly proportional to T P1/T1= p2/t2
Graham's Law Rate directly proportional to Molar mass
P= atm
n= mol
v= liters
R= .0821 atm/k-mol
T= kelvin
Created by: AlanaR