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Activity Series a list of elements in order of decreasing activity; the activity series of halogens is Fl, Cl, Br, I
Catalyst a substance that increases the rate of reaction by lowering the activation-energy barrier; the catalyst is not used up in the reaction
Chemical Equation an expression representing a chemical reaction; the formulas of the reactants (on the left) are connected by an arrow with the formulas for the products (on the right)
Coefficients a small whole number that appears in front of a formula in a balanced chemical equation
Combination Reaction a chemical change in which an element or a compo9und reacts with oxygen, often producing energy in the form of heat and light
Combustion Reaction a chemical change in which an element or a compound reacts with oxygen, often producing energy in the form of heat and light
Decomposition Reaction a chemical change in which a single compound is broken down into two or more simpler products
Double Replacement Reaction a chemical change that involves an exchange of positive ions between two compounds
Half Reaction an equation showing either the oxidation or the reduction that takes place in a redox reaction
Ionic Equation a chemical equation where the electrolytes in aqueous solution are written as dissociated ions
Balanced Equation a chemical equation in which mass is conserved; each side of the equation has the same number of atoms of each element
Net ionic equation an equation for a reaction in solution showing only those particles that are directly involved in the chemical change
Oxidation a process that involves complete or partial loss of electrons or a gain of oxygen; it results in an increase in the oxidation number of an atom
Oxidation Number a positive or negative number assigned to an atom to indicate its degree of oxidation or reduction; the oxidation number of an uncombined element is zero
Oxidizing agent the substance in a redox reaction that accepts electrons; in the reaction, the oxidizing agent is reduced
Redox reaction another name for an oxidation-reduction reaction
Reducing agent the substance in a redox reaction that donates electrons; in the reaction, the reducing agent is oxidized
Reduction a process that involves a complete or partial gain of electrons or the loss of oxygen; it results in a decrease in the oxidation number of an atom
Single replacement reaction a chemical change in which one element replaces a second element in a compound; also called a displacement reaction
Skeleton equation a chemical equation that does not indicate the relative amounts of reactants and products
Spectator ion an ion that is not directly involved in a chemical reaction; an ion that does not change oxidation number or composition during a reaction
Synthesis A+B->AB
Decomposition AB->A+B
Single Replacement A+BC-> B+AC
Double Replacement AB+CD->AD+CB
Combustion A+O2->B
Oxidation is the ____ of electrons loss
Reduction is the ____ of electrons gain
Substance reduced is the ______ agent oxidizing
Substance oxidized is the ______ reducing
Balancing Redox Reactions BOHEC
Actual yield The quantity of a product that is obtained from a chemical reaction
Atomic mass average mass of atoms of an element, calculated using the relative abundance of isotopes in a naturally-occurring element
Avogadro's number Avogadro's number is the number of particles found in one mole of a substance 6.02x10^23
Empirical formula smalles whole # ratio
Excess reactant
Limiting reactant
Molar mass The mass of one mole of a substance, usually expressed in grams or kilograms g/mol
Mole a chemical mass unit, defined to be 6.022 x 1023 molecules, atoms, or some other unit.
Molecular formula An expression which states the number and type of atoms present in a molecule of a substance (find factor and multiply by empirical formula)
Mole ratio ratio between the amounts in moles of any two compounds involved in a chemical reaction
Percent composition percentage by mass of each element in a compound
Percent yield the experimental yield divided by theoretical yield multiplied by 100% actual yield/theoretical yield
Representative particle
Stoichiometry the study of the relationships or ratios between two or more substances undergoing a physical or chemical change (chemical reaction)
STP Standard Temperature and Pressure: 273 K, 1 atm
Theoretical Yield the quantity of a product obtained from the complete conversion of the limiting reactant in a chemical reaction
Experimental % COmp Mass of decomposed sample/ mass of sample
Theoretical % Comp Atomic mass of elements/ total mass of compound
Created by: AlanaR