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Chapter 2-Atom

The structure of the Atom

Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass.
Element A substance that consists only one type of atom.
Compound A substance that contains two or more elements that are chemically bonded together.
Molecule A group of two or more atoms.
Ion A positively-charged or negatively-charged particle.
Solid Particles are packed closely together in an orderly manner.Particles can only vibrate at their fixed position.Strong forces between the particles.Low energy content because movement is restricted.
Liquid Particles are packed closely but not in an orderly arrangement.Particles can vibrate,move and rotate.They collide against each other.Strong forces but weaker than solid.High energy content because particles can move freely.
Gas Particles are very far apart and in an random arrangement.The collision is greater than liquid.Weak force between the particles.Highest energy content because movement is random.
SLS Heat energy is absorbed.
Heating of Naphthalene Temperature remains constant because the heat energy absorbed by the particles is used to overcome the forces between particles so that solid can turn into liquid.
Cooling of Naphthalene Temperature remains constant because the heat loss to the surroundings is balanced by the heat energy as the particles attract one another to form solid.
During heating of naphthalene, Placed in the conical flask because to ensure even heating and because naphthalene is flammable.Is stirred continuously to ensure even heating.
During cooling of naphthalene, Is placed into a conical flask because to ensure even cooling process to minimise the heat loss to the surroundings.Is stirred continuously to avoid supercooling.
Supercooling is a condition in which the temperature of a cooling liquid drops below its normal freezing point without the appearance of a solid.
John Dalton Atom
J.J.Thomson Electron
Ernest Rutherford Proton
Niels Bohr Atomic model based on the Solar System
James Chadwick Nuetrons
Proton number number of protons and electrons
Nucleon number proton number + neutrons number
Neutrons number nucleon number - proton number
Isotopes are atoms of the same element with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
Uses of isotopes Medical uses,Agriculture,Power sources,Archaeological and Industry.
Medical uses Cobalt-60-Gamma Rays are used in radioptherapy for the treatment of cancer.Iodine-131 is used in the treatment of thyroid diseases.
Power sources Uranium-235 is the fuel used in nuclear power stations.
Agriculture Phosphorus-32 for fertilisers.Carbon-14 to study of photosynthesis.
Archaeological Carbon-14 used to estimate the ages of artifacts like bones.
Industry Sodium-24 used to trace leakage of pipes.Cobalt-60 to destroy bacteria in food.Krypton-85 to control the thickness of plastic.
Created by: NathalieCJ7