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imaging 2a a&e

a&e imaging

what are the types of scenarios in an A&E department 1. general load 2. epidemic outbreak 3. mass casualty
types of threats 1. chemical 2. biological 3. radiological 4. explosive
what is a mass casualty event 1. a public health emergency involving multiple patients that overwhelms local resources 2. transition of "standard of care" to a "sufficiency of care"
definition of outbreak infectious or parasitic disease defined as the occurrence of a number of cases of the disease, that is unusually large or unexpected for the particular place & time
what is the flow during an epidemic outbreak 1. initial diagnosis & investigation 2. informing local authorities 3. quarantine zone 4. patient isolation & care
explain chemical threat and give an example toxic chemical agent released as vapour or gas example : Tokyo Sarin attack, cyanide, chlorine, ammonia
explain biological threat and give an example organisms or toxins that can kill or incapitate humans, livestock and crops example : anthrax, botulinum toxin
explain radiological threat radioactive source in a public place
explain explosive threat nuclear device
what happened in 1965 in Singapore Macdonalds house bombing along orchard road by Indonesian sabouteurs
the macdonalds house was bombed by indonesian sabouteurs
the bombing of Singapore's macdonalds house by indonesian sabouteurs happened in what year 1965
what happened in 2001 in Singapore plans to bomb embassies in Singapore, yishun MRT by Jemaah Islamiyah
who made plans to bomb embassies in Singapore & yishun mrt Jemaah Islamiyah
when did the plans of bombing embassies in Singapore & yishun mrt occur 2001
what is a dirty bomb radiological dispersal device
what is the function of a dirty bomb to disperse radiological material over wide area, causing contamination of people as well as area surrounding the blast
characteristics of a dirty bomb 1. likely to produce insufficient radiation 2. immediate injuries due to blast 3. radiological injuries if any, are delayed
a pure terror weapon with the purpose of creating psychological harm through ignorance and mass hysteria as compared to physical harm is called a dirty bomb
what does a radiation response team (RRT) comprises of 1. chief of RRT 2. radiation safety officer 3. nuclear medicine personnel 4. emergency department personnel 5. security 6. housekeeping
how does the RRT work on-call activation
what is the function of RRT involve with radioactive sources detection, decontamination of patients and area, transferring of patients, radiation protection of staff
what are the common types of radionuclides 1. Caesium chloride 2. cobalt 3. americium 4. iridium
what does RIR stands for Radiation Isolation Room
what is the function of a radiation survey meter determine the presence of casualty contamination
examples of radiation survey meter 1. Geiger Muller detector 2. Sodium Iodide Scintillator detector
4 specific types of radiation 1. alpha 2. beta 3. gamma 4. neutron
specific levels or ranges of radiation energy 1. kilovolt (KV) 2. megavolt (MV)
what is the units for counts per unit time 1. counts per minute 2. counts per second
what is the unit for Roentgens (R) per unit time milliRoentgen per hour (mR/hr)
unit measurement of accumulated dose 1. gray 2. rad
unit measurement of current dose rate 1. gray per unit time 2. rad per unit time
the radioisotopes detected by Geiger Muller detector 1. Carbon (C-14) 2. Sulfur (S-35) 3. Phosphorus (P-32 & P33)
what type of phosphorus radioisotopes are detected by the Geiger Muller detector 1. P-32 2. P-33
the radioisotopes detected by Sodium Iodide Scintillator 1. iodine (I-125) 2. cesium (Cs-137) 3. chromium (Cr-51) 4. Zinc (Zn-65)
what is a personal monitoring meter device which calculates cumulative dose with real time dose display
when will the alarm warning activated in a personal monitoring meter when dose limit set is nearing or has exceeded
maximum dose limit for radiation workers 50 mSv
maximum dose limit for members of the public 5 mSv
maximum dose limit for healthcare workers who are non-radiation workers 5 mSv
what are the general radiographic equipment 1. general X-Ray rooms 2. mobile units 3. dedicated units
equipment in general X-Ray rooms 1. x-ray tube 2. radiographic table 3. tube support
characteristics of x-ray tube 1. high speed rotating anode 2. dual focus 3. good ergonomics 4. whole room coverage 5. horizontal beams from both side of the table 6. high enough for trolley; low enough for standing techniques 7. easily rotate about its axis 8. easy release lock
what are the sizes of the dual focus 1. 0.6mm 2. 1.2mm
characteristics of radiographic table 1. adjustable height 2. low enough for access for infirm patients 3. floating top 4. lockable for transfer 5. easily cleaned 6. movement controls on both sides 7. end to end bucky coverage 8. AEC device 9. rails/side tracks for accessories equipme
types of tube supports 1. floor mounted 2. ceiling mounted
characteristics of floor mounted tube supports 1. tube column travels along a floor track 2. may also have a ceiling track for added support 3. tube is on a cross-arm which allows vertical and transverse movement
advantages of floor mounted tube supports 1. cheaper 2. easier to center to table 3. faster to use for table work 4. FFD easier to set (read off column) 5. no ceiling reinforcement required 6. may be able to reach lower
characteristics of ceiling mounted tube supports 1. suspended from ceiling on 2 sets of tracks 2. one set parallel to table 3. the other set 90 degrees to table 4. tube suspended from a telescopic column
advantages of ceiling mounted supports 1. floor area around table is free of column and track 2. larger range of movement 3. freer use of horizontal beam 4. longer FFD available 5. easier movement as no floor track to fill with dust 6. easier alignment to ancillary equipment
characteristics of mobile units 1. kVp range 2. mAs range 3. column rotation range 4. tube rotation, tilt 5. tube arm reach 6. intelligent tube-receptor alignment system for grid use 7. intelligent drive system 8. charging of detectors
function of the resuscitation area 1. management of Priority 1 (P1) patients, provide immediate care of patients and victims in cardiac arrest, airway, breathing & circulation compromise
advantages of fixed units 1. high throughput 2. floor space around the patient is clear 3. better image quality
disadvantages of fixed units 1. high cost 2. underutilisation
advantages of mobile units 1. no installation cost 2. mobility for other cases 3. low maintenance
disadvantages of mobile units 1. floor space around patients is impeded 2. lower image quality
characteristics of patient trolley 1. tilting trolley top 2. variable height adjustment 3. adjustable backrest 4. cot sides 5. drip stand holder 6. oxygen bottle holder 7. brakes & steering locks 8. radiolucent mattress 9. easy to clean 10. image receptor tray for under-trolley ra
what are skull units device for isocentric skull imgaing
characteristics of skull unit 1. good patient immobilisation 2. unit is moved from PA to lateral in one movement 3. versatile psitioning for trauma patients 4. can be used with the table or free standing 5. variable magnification factors
what does OPG stand for orthopantomogram
characteristics of OPG units 1. used for facial fractures 2. full mandible anatomy on one film 3. patient is only positioned once
examples of facial trauma 1. mandible fracture 2. maxilla fracture 3. orbits fracture 4. TMJ injury
characteristics of pat slide 1. thin sheet of plastic enough to fit under patient without discomfort 2. radiolucent 3. slight flexibility to prevent breakage 4. friction strips on underside 5. easy cleaning
what is an image receptor holder a device to hold cassette vertically
characteristics of image receptor holder 1. useful for horizontal beam projections 2. may attach directly to trolly or fit under mattress 3. on a mobile stand with brakes
grids are mainly required for lateral projections
what is bedside ultrasound ultrasound examinations are performed and interpreted by the treating physician on the spot
advantages of bedside ultrasound 1. clinical questions can be answered immediately 2. accelerating decision making and management of patient
cases requiring ultrasound 1. diagnosis 2. procedures
examples of ultrasound diagnostic cases 1. penetrative cardiac trauma 2. pericardial tamponade 3. intraperitoneal haemorrhage
what is pericardial tamponade an acute type of pericardial effusion in which fluid accumulates in the pericardium
causes of intraperitoneal haemorrhage 1. trauma 2. ectopic pregnancy 3. leaking abdominal aortic aneurysm
examples of ultrasounf procedure cases 1. insertion of central lines 2. drainage of abcesses or collections
characteristics of bed side ultrasound machine 1. cost 2. complexity & features 3. size 4. startup time 5. portability 6. probes
robes used in bed side ultrasound 1. small curved linear array 2. high frequency linear array 3. phased array 4. endovaginal
cases using small curved linear array 1. abdominal trauma 2. cardiac
cases using high frequency linear array 1. superficial structures 2. vascular access 3. foreign body detection
cases using phased array high quality array
cases using endovaginal probe early pregnancies
name of the last full body imaging system Lodox full body X-Ray scanning system
characteristics of Lodox scanning system 1. uses slit scanning technique to reduce dose 2. image quality similar or even superior to conventional radiography 3. supine position must be maintained 4. cardiac motion captured 5. 2D images
Created by: 656402553



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