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Chemistry Refresher Terms

Electrons (e-) Small negatively charged subatomic particles that orbit around an atom's positively charged nucleus by forces of electromagnetism. Mass: 9.110 x 10^-28
Protons (p+) Subatomic particles with a positive charge; with roughly 1800 times greater mass than an electron. Mass: 1.675 x 10^-24
Neutrons (n) Subatomic particles with a similar mass to their partner proton in the nucleus but with no electrical (+ or -) charge. Mass: 1.675 x 10^-24
Cathode (+) Electrode where reduction takes place.
Anode (-) Electrode where oxidation takes place.
Ideal Gas Law PV=nRT *R= 0.0821 L atm/K.mol
Conversion Factors 1km/ 10^3m 1in/2.54cm 1mg=10^-3g 1.06qt/L 1gal/4qt 1.61km/mi 10^3m/km 1hr/60mins
Fahrenheit (F) F=9/5 (C) + 32
Celsius (C) C=5/9 (F - 32)
Kelvin (K) K = C +273
1in 2.54cm
1lb 454g
1qt 1qt = 0.946L
Pressure Conversion 1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr
milli- 0.001
centi- 0.01
kilo- 1,000
Acid is a substance that donates an H+ ion to another chemical species called a base.
Base is a substance that accepts (combines with) an H+ ion.
pH scale measures the acidity of a liquid by measuring the concentration of hydrogen ions. pH = 7 is neutral pH= less that 7 is acidic pH= greater than 7 is basic
Combined Gas Law (P1V1)/T1 = (P2V2)/T2 *T must be in Kelvin
1 mol 6.022 x 10^23 particles/mol *formula weight expressed in grams
Atomic Number (Z) Is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Chemical Nomenclature Is that standardized system used to name chemical elements and compounds.
Atomic Weight Average atomic mass for a naturally occurring element in atomic mass units.
Period Contains chemical elements in a horizontal row of the Periodic Table.
Group Contains the elements in one column of the Periodic Table.
Metallurgy Describes the science of metals and their properties, as well as purification methods, reactions, and the formation of useful alloys.
Metals About 80% of the elements, can be pulled into thin wires (i.e., ductile) or pounded into sheets (i.e., malleable). Usually solid at room temperature, shiny, and good conductors of heat and electricity.
Nonmetals Gases at room temp. (e.g., helium and argon) or brittle solids (e.g., phosphorus and selenium).
Chemical Bond Force that binds two or more atoms together.
Molecule Composed of atoms chemically bonded by attractive forces.
Covalent Bond Electrons are shared equally between atoms.
Ionic Bond Electrons are transferred between atoms.
Molecular Compound Resulting mixture of different atoms.
Diatomic Molecules Molecules occurring naturally as two-atom molecules (e.g., oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine) occurs in pairs at room temperature; grouped in IA and VIIA of the periodic table.
Molecular Formula Gives the exact number of different atoms of an element in a molecule.
Structural Formulas Show how specific atoms are arranged and bonded in a compound.
Element Is made up of a pure sample of all of the same kinds of atoms and cannot be further separated into simpler components.
Created by: mmcclure