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# Statistics Test 1

TermDefinition
Statistics The science of collecting and analyzing data and drawing conclusions
Variability Natural differences that exist in data. It is universal.
Population Entire collection of individuals/objects which info is desired.
Census Performed to gather information about a population.
Sample A subset of the population selected for study.
Descriptive Statistics Methods of organizing and summarizing data.
Inferential Statistics Making generalization from the sample to the population.
Variable Any characteristics whose value may change from one individual to another
Data The values for a variable from individual observations.
Categorical Variables Identifies basic differentiating characteristics of a population. Quantitative.
Numerical Variables Observations/measurements that can be averaged.
Discrete Numerical Variables Isolated points along the number line. (counts)
Continuous Numerical Variables Can be any value on interval. (Measurements, amounts...)
Confounding Variable Related to both group membership and the response variable of interest.
Simple Random Sampling Everyone has an equal chance of being selected. Population representation is not guaranteed.
Sampling Frame List of all individuals/objects in population.
Stratified Random Sampling Broken up into non-overlapping categories and then do simple random sample.
Cluster Sampling Divided into non-overlapping groups call clusters.
Systematic Sampling Use rule/method to collect sample.
Bias The tendency for samples to differ from population in some systematic way.
Selection Bias Undercoverage.
Convenience Samping Easily available/convenient group.
Measurement/Response Bias Systematic differences (ex: improperly calibrated scale)
Non-Response Bias Sample doesn't respond.
Response Varible Not controlled. Variable that is measured. (Independent)
Explanatory Variables Controlled values. (Dependent)
Extraneous Variables Not an explanatory variable but can affect results.
Direct Control Holding extraneous variables constant so effects are not confounded with those of the experimental conditions.
Blocking Process by which an extraneous variable's effects are filtered out.
Randomized Block Units are blocked into homogeneous groups and then randomly assigned to treatments.
Matched Pairs Blocks consist of two experimental units that are similar with each being randomly assigned treatment.
Variance Estimated average of deviations squared.
Interquartile Range (IQR) The range of the middle half of the data.
Extrapolation Calculating numbers outside of the model.
Residual Deviation from the predicted value. -No pattern: Linear -Curved pattern: Not linear
Five Number Summary 1) Minimum 2) Maximum 3) Median 4) Lower Quartile 5) Upper Quartile
Data Analysis Process 1) Understand the nature of problem. 2) Decide what/how to measure (define variables) 3) Collect Data 4) Summarize data, perform preliminary analysis (range, deviation) 5) Formal analysis 6) Interpret Results
Created by: jhairston