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chem 1.5.

organic chem

what are alkANES? SATURATED hydrocarbons, general formula = Cn H2n+2
How many bonds can carbon atoms form? 4 (maximum)
what are cycloalkanes? ring of carbon atoms general formula= CnH2n
What are structural isomers? different arrangements of the same atom
What structural isomers can alkanes form? Chain isomers, only when c-c bonds are switched (onto another carbon atom in the chain) is it an isomer. It is the SAME arrangement if it is rotated!
What do alkanes burn in? Oxygen
What happens when alkanes form halogenoalkanes? FREE RADICAL SUBSTITUTION.
What is free radical substitution? Halogens reacting with alkanes, it can only be started by UV LIGHT.
What are the steps of free radical substitution? 1)initiation reaction- free radicals produced 2) propagation reactions- free radicals used up- in chain reactions 3)Termination reactions-free radicals form stable molecules
What is crude oil? A mixture of hydrocarbons
What is petroleum? crude oil, made mostly of alkanes.
How do you separate crude oil? Fractional distillation
What are the steps of fractional distillation? 1) vaporised at 350c 2)fractionating column- largest dont vaporise turn into residual. 3)vapor goes up- is cooled, and condenses, therefore drawn off. 4) lowest boiling points don't condense- turn into gases
What happens to the products in fractional distillation? light fractions are more valuable-higher demand so are stored/sold. Heavy fractions are cracked.
What is cracking? Breaking long chained alkanes into smaller hydrocarbons.
What are the conditions for thermal cracking? high temp, high pressure. AlkENES are cracked using this method, form POLYMERS.
What are the conditions for catalytic cracking? form motor fuels. aromatic, ZEOLITE catalyst, slight pressure, high temp
What can alkanes be reformed into? cycloalkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons
what are uses of alkane fuels? methane- used in cooking, central heating -petrol -jet fuel -diesel
what is the disadvantage of using alkanes? are expensive, non-renewable, run out, PRODUCE EMISSIONS.
What emissions are produced from alkanes? sulfur dioxides- scrubbers used to reduce output. Are poisonous. Produce acid rain- sulfuric acid. Carbon monoxide- formed by incomplete combustion, is a poisonous gas. Nitrogen oxide- forms acid rain, causes breathing problems- affects ozone layer.
What are greenhouse gases? Formed from alkanes, absorb infrared leading to global warming.
AlkENES are? UNSATURATED hydrocarbons. Formula= CnH2n
Alkene properties? Are more reactive, have a double bond consisting of a pi and sigma bond. The double bond has a high electron density.
Adding hydrogen to c=c bonds produces? AlkANES via ELECTROPHILIC ADDITION
What are the conditions for electrophilic addition? nickel catalyst at 150c.
What happens in electrophilic addition? Double bond opens- the pi bond is an electron rich area (is nucleophilic), which attracts the electrophile (hydrogen) meaning the hydrogen attaches itself to each of the carbons.
What is an electrophile? Are electron pair acceptors, they are short of electrons, therefore are attracted to electron rich areas. Examples- Positively charged ions- H+ -Polar molecules
What is an nucleophile (electron rich area)? A area high in electrons which is attracted to places which don't have enough electrons. The double bond in C=C is nucleophilic.
What is a hazard? anything that can cause harm
What is a risk? chance of what you are doing can cause harm
what is a risk assessment? is created to reduce risks, -working in a smaller scale -appropriate precautions, e.g. wearing eye protection -safer chemicals- lower concentration THIS MINIMISES RISK.
Hydrogen halides form (with a unsymmetrical alkene)? 2 products, mostly form the most stable carbocation!
Alkenes do what when they react with halogens and hydrogen halides? ELECTROPHILIC ADDITION.
In order of stability, what are the most stable carbocations? tertiary, secondary, primary.
What is the two tests for an alkene? bromine water- turns colourless with alkenes, because the c=c bonds undergo electrophilic addition with bromine water. Alkenes are oxidised in acidified potassium manganate. turns from purple- to colourless.
E/z Isomerism? Double bonds cant rotate, therefore carbons all lie on the same plane (are trigonal planar). Therefore their structural isomers are the same atoms but different arrangement- steroisomerism.
E isomerism Is an isomer with DIAGONAL rotation. When the same groups are diagonally across the double bond.
What is stereoisomerism? Are atoms with the same structural formula but different arrangement. Because of the lack of rotation, some alkenes have stereoisomers.
Z isomerism? Is an isomer with VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL rotation. When the same groups are vertically or horizontally across the double bond.
Cis isomerism? Z isomer. This only applies if they have the same groups attached to them.
Trans isomerism? REMEMBER 'trane' is a E isomer. This only applies if they have the same groups attached to them.
Alkenes can join to form? additional polymers
What happens to the double bond in additional polymers? The double bonds open up to form a long chain- a monomer (a repeated unit) forms lots of polymers!
What do polymers form? Plastics (mostly)
What happens to waste polymer plastics? waste plastics, can either be buried, recycled, or burned.
What is the problems with burying plastics? they are unreactive, and non-biodegradable, meaning they lead to environmental damage.
What happens in the process of recycling? plastics are sorted, them melted molded/remodeled down to make new plastics.
What is the problems of burning plastics? heat is used, wasting electricity, toxic gases can be released (are prevented using a scrubber to neutralize)
Properties of biodegradable polymers? decompose under right conditions. Are made from starch. Renewable materials- oil fractions.
What are the problems with biodegradable polymers? you have to collect and separate them from other plastics. Are more expensive.
Created by: brontemunro