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3 types of rock igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary
sedimentary rock formation? deposited sediments layer and the pressure makes sedimentary rocks
metamorphic rock formation? under high pressure and temperature (changes form). higher pressure = larger grains
igneous rock formation? rocks melt, cool and recrystrallize
intrusive igneous? cools as it travels, hardens below ground. cools slowly. large crystals
extrusive igneous? solidifies around the volcano, cools on the surface. cools fast. small crystals
rock cycle starting from weathering weathering of rocks on surface, erosion and transport, deposition of sediment, burial and compaction, SEDIMENTARY ROCK, deformation and metamorphism, METAMORPHIC ROCK, melting, crystallisation of magma, IGNEOUS ROCK
3 types of weathering physical, chemical, biological
physical weathering water seeps into cracks, freezes and expands, breaking the rock apart over a long time. FREEZE THAW
chemical weathering slightly acidic rainwater reacts with rocks to form new minerals. ACID EROSION
biological weathering plants' roots are put down cracks in the rock to find moisture. as the plant grows, the roots gradually prize the rock apart.
erosion the removal of the products of weathering from where they were formed
how are bits of rocks transported? wind, water, glacier
3 main layers of Earth from centre core, mantle, crust
inner core is in what state of matter? solid
outer core is in what state of matter? liquid
crust is made up of? continental crust and oceanic crust
3 properties of continental crust thick (10-70km), buoyant (less dense than oceanic crust), mostly old
3 properties of oceanic crust thin (7km), dense (sinks under cont crust), young
how many major plates are there 12
3 types of plate boundaries divergent, convergent, transform
divergent plates move apart, new material is erupted to fill in the gap, ridges will spread.
convergent C-C forms mountains, O-C is called subduction. oceanic lithosphere subducts under continental lithosphere. O-O forms a subduction zone
transform plates slide past each other, form fault lines
define lithosphere crust + upper mantle. it is rigid
how are plates moved around mantle hot convection cells
particle size clues if particles are close in size, well sorted (wind, water slowing down steadily). if particles are different sizes, poorly sorted (abrupt slowing down of river)
particle shape clues a glacier cushions the rock so less collisions (more jagged rock).a fast-flowing river flings rocks and stones against each other (more smooth and rounded).
graded bedding clues river sediment builds up on the continental shelf. if it gets dislodged it tumbles forward into deep ocean water and settles on the ocean floor.
cross bedding clues layers of sediment beds lie at different angles, reflecting the direction of flow of the wind or water that deposited them. wind deposited sand dunes are often like this.
ripple marks clues suggests sediment was shaped by a current of wind or water after it has been deposited
mud cracks clues suggests that the watery environment in which this sediment was deposited dried up at some point.
aureole definition the metamorphosed zone around the intrusion
contact metamorphism rocks in contact with molten magma can undergo contact metamorphism. the change can extend from a few cm to a few km into the rock, depending on how big and hot the body of magma is.
regional metamorphism rocks get buried under sediment, or trapped by large movements in earth's crust (as in mountain building). extends over 1000s of sq km.
dike intrudes across rock layers
laccolith mushroom-shaped
batholith irregular and over 100 sq km of its surface is exposed.
sill intrudes between rock layers
what makes magma viscous? minerals like silica.
12 main plates pacific, fiji, scotia, nazca, eurasia, north american, south american, caribbean, antarctic, arabian, indian, australian
hi hi
Created by: karspider