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2013 CG Final

What kind of minds do critical thinkers have? Open
What are critical thinkers able to see? Pros and cons of both sides
What is bias? Being unfair to one side.
Why is realizing that everyone has a different reality important? You can see that everyone is different and might not think like you do.
What is something a non-critical thinker would say? If you don’t agree with me, you’re stupid!
What are the two parts to a government? What do they concern? Economy – money, Politics - power
What’s the difference between capitalism and socialism? Capitalism – individual controls wealth Socialism – gov controls wealth
What’s the only difference between socialism and communism? Socialism – goods distributed by how hard you work Communism – goods distributed based on need
How could you argue that America is communist and capitalist? Individuals control the wealth, but everyone gets help from the government if they need it.
Define Anarchy No government
Define Dictatorship One person controls the government
Define Oligarchy Ruled by few
Define Plutocracy Ruled by rich
Define Totalitarian Dictatorship One leader controls gov, religion, culture and economy
Define Theocracy Ruled by God or the religion
Define Monarchy One ruler who got power from birth
Define Republic Ppl vote for ppl who make laws
How is a republic different from a parliament? Republic has other branches, parliament is the entire government.
What is a pure democracy? Everyone votes for everything.
How is a republic similar to a parliament? Both have representatives voted for by the people.
Which party would most people who live in the city vote for? Democrats
Which party would most minorities vote for? Democrats
Which party would most people who live in the Midwest vote for? Republicans
Which party would most Jews vote for? Democrats
Which party would most wealthy people vote for? Republicans
Which party would most people who were raised republican vote for? Republicans
Which party is more liberal? Democrats
Which party is more conservative? Republicans
Which party would Locke vote for? Democrats
Which party would Hobbes vote for? Republicans
Which philosopher thought most people are selfish? Hobbes
Which philosopher thought most people are good? Locke
What does Locke loves and Hobbes hates mean? Locke thinks people are mostly good, Hobbes thinks people are mostly selfish.
Which party would want lower taxes? Republicans
Which party would ban abortion? Republicans
Which party would make seatbelts mandatory? Republicans
Which party would pass a law making Christianity the official US religion? Republicans
Which party would make gay marriage illegal? Republicans
Which party would raise taxes? Democrats
Which party would raise the minimum wage? Democrats
Which party would like a strict separation of church and state? Democrats
Which party would probably legalize illegal drugs? Democrats
Which party would make punishments for crimes less strict? Democrats
Which party would lower the drinking age? Democrats
Which party would put more money into public schools? Democrats
Which party would cut welfare spending? Republicans
Which party would ban the death penalty? Democrats
Where were Locke and Hobbes from? England
During which century did Locke and Hobbes live? 1700s (18th Century)
What are Locke and Hobbes’ first names? John and Thomas
Credit get goods now and promise to pay later
Natural resources Anything from the Earth that has an economic value
Market economy an econ system where the consumers make decisions
Command economy an econ system where the gov makes decisions
Budget a plan for how money will be spent and earned
Want things for which you desire or wish but life, health, and safety don't depend
Services things done for you to meet your needs
Producers businesses that grow or make goods
Suppliers businesses that buy goods from producers and sell them to consumers
Consumers the people who buy goods and services
Wholesale prices of products when producers sell to suppliers
Retail prices of products when suppliers sell to consumers
Taxes money paid to gov from citizens
Expenses money that is spent
Income money that is earned
Gross the amount of money earned before taxes and other deductions are taken out
Commerce another word for business
Barter to trade without using money
Capital the money used to start a business
Needs things upon which your life, health and safety depend
Which economic system is based on individual profit? Capitalism
Who owns the production in capitalism? Individual
Who was the father of capitalism? Where was he from? Adam Smith, Scotland
What was Smith’s book called? Wealth of Nations
What did Smith think was the role of the government in the economy? It had no role. It should stay out of the economy.
What is physiocracy? Wealth is based on how much land you have.
What did Smith say was the major source of wealth? Labor
Why did Smith say workers would work hard in factories? To raise production, which raises profits, which raises their wages.
What is “the invisible hand”? How does it work? The way the market balances itself out by shortages raising prices, which entices others to sell the product which brings prices back down and brings variety.
Why could competition in the market help people? It keeps prices down and a wide variety.
What does laissez-faire translate to? What does it mean? “let them do”. It means that the government should let the marked be free and not interfere.
What did Smith say about import taxes? They make prices go up.
It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest. – Smith, Wealth of Nations – What does that mean? People don’t sell you things because they like you, they do it for profit.
What are three criticism of capitalism? Workers can be treated unfairly., Some people become very poor, Some must lose for some to win.
In communism, what does “To each according to their needs” mean? Everyone will get what they need.
How does ownership work in communism? Everyone shares everything. No one person owns anything.
Who is the father of communism? Where was he from? Karl Marx, Germany
What did Marx think history was all about? Class struggles. The poor man being kept down by the rich man.
Name three countries that adopted Marx’s ideas. France, Russia, China
What did Marx say about religion? What did that mean? He said it was the “opiate of the people” which means that people focus on religion and the afterlife when they should be fighting for this life. He saw religion as something that the rich invented to keep the peasants down.
What is the proletariat? The working class
What is the bourgeoisie? The land and factory owners
What did Marx say would happen among the proletariat and the bourgeoisie? A war would happen with the proletariat winning. Then, everyone would be equal and there would be no government or social classes.
What are four criticism of Marx’s Ideas? In the 20th century, it is estimated that 50 million people were killed in the name of communism. Most of Marx’s predictions haven’t came true yet. It is inconsistent with human nature. It degrades religion.
larceny taking someone's property with the intention of stealing it; stealing property without using force
civil law laws that guide how people relate with each other such as in business
criminal law laws that guide public conduct
plaintiff the person bringing the complaint to court in a civil case
prosecutor the lawyer(s) representing the government, filing charges against the accused
defendant the person responding to the charges/complaint brought against them
preponderance of evidence in a civil trial, there is enough evidence to suggest that the defendant probably did it
beyond a reasonable doubt enough evidence to gain a conviction in criminal court
felony serious crimes; usually punishable by more than 2.5 years in prison
misdemeanor less serious crimes; usually punishable by less than 2.5 years in prison
first degree murder premeditated murder that involves intent
second degree murder homicide that takes place with in the commission of another felony, such as rape or robbery
third degree murder homicide that involves intent, but does not require premeditation
voluntary manslaughter homicide with intent, no premeditation, for an understandable reason
involuntary manslaughter unintentional homicide caused by reckless or negligent behavior
extortion taking property of another using threat of future harm; also called blackmail
embezzlement taking someone's property that was entrusted to you
burglary entering an enclosed structure against the consent of the owner
entrapment defense claiming the accused was solicited to commit a crime by a police officer
restitution a sum of money paid in compensation for loss or injury
intent the offender meant to commit the crime
accessory before the fact helping the principal in the commission of a crime
solicitation encouraging someone to commit a crime
conspiracy two or more people plan to commit a crime
euthanasia mercy killing
precedent a ruling that is used as the basis for a judicial decision in a later, similar case
motive the reason a person commits a crime
bail the legal system that allows an accused person to be temporarily released from custody (usually on condition that a sum of money guarantees their appearance at trial)
litigant either the defendant or the plaintiff
miranda warning ..., warnings police must give persons detained or arrested as criminal suspects
deposition ..., (law) a pretrial interrogation of a witness
parole ..., (law) a conditional release from imprisonment that entitiles the person to serve the remainder of the sentence outside the prison as long as the terms of release are complied with
probation ..., (law) a way of dealing with offenders without imprisoning them
juvenile ...an underage defendant
no contest ...a plea before the court in which the defendant does not admit guilt but concedes the alleged charges without offering a defense
warrant ...a written order issued by a judicial officer or other authorized person commanding a law enforcement officer to perform some act incident to the administration of justice
plead ...accused person makes a formal reply to a charge in a criminal court
sentence ..., (criminal law) a final judgment of guilty in a criminal case and the punishment that is imposed
appeal ..., (law) a legal proceeding in which the appellant resorts to a higher court for the purpose of obtaining a review of a lower court decision and a reversal of the lower court's judgment or the granting of a new trial
What were the two sides in Plessy v. Ferguson? Plessy was black train rider, Ferguson owned train
What were the facts of Plessy v. Ferguson? Plessy kicked off train, arrested for riding on white car
What was the conclusion of Plessy v. Ferguson? Ferguson won. Separate is equal.
What were the two sides in Brown v. Board? Brown – black mom w/ student. Board – school board
What were the facts of Brown v. Board? Brown wanted to go to white school. Wasn’t allowed. Sued.
What was the conclusion of Brown v. Board? Brown wins. Separate is not equal.
What were the two sides in Heart of Atlanta v. US? Heart = motel, US is US gov.
What were the facts of Heart of Atlanta v. US? Heart wanted to ban blacks, sued US b/c thought they had a right to.
What was the conclusion of Heart of Atlanta v. US? US wins. Heart must serve all.
What were the two sides in Tinker v. Des Moines? Tinker = students, Des Moines = school board
What were the facts of Tinker v. Des Moines? Tinker wore armbands to protest Vietnam. Suspended when they didn't remove them.
What was the conclusion of Tinker v. Des Moines? Tinker wins. Armbands weren’t distractive.
What were the two sides in Engle v. Vitale? Engle=student Vitale=school board of NY state
What were the facts of Engle v. Vitale? NY schools had nondenominational prayer. Engle sued.
What was the conclusion of Engle v. Vitale? School prayer violated AM1. State can’t have official religion.
What were the two sides in Bethel v. Fraser? Fraser made obscene comment at assembly. Bethel was school board.
What were the facts of Bethel v. Fraser? Fraser said AM1 protected him.
What was the conclusion of Bethel v. Fraser? Bethel wins b/c Fraser took rights to decency away from audience.
What were the two sides in Mapp v. Ohio? Mapp = woman who was searched w/o warrant, OH = state
What were the facts of Mapp v. Ohio? Cops found child porn while searching for fugitive. She wanted it thrown out.
What was the conclusion of Mapp v. Ohio? Evidence thrown out. Mapp wins.
What were the two sides in Texas v. Johnson? Johnson burned US flag. Texas = state.
What were the facts of Texas v. Johnson? Illegal to burn flag or protected by AM1?
What was the conclusion of Texas v. Johnson? Flag burning is protected by 1AM.
What were the two sides in New Jersey v. TLO? TLO student smoking at school. Search turned up pot. New Jersey = state
What were the facts of New Jersey v. TLO? Search legal w/o warrant?
What was the conclusion of New Jersey v. TLO? Search was legal for safety of students.
Created by: rockcastle