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Disease- causing agents are called pathogens
Fluid is kept from accumulating is tissue spaces by the lymphatic system
The structure of a lymphatic vessel is most similar to that of a(n) vien
The two collecting ducts that drain the lymphatic trunks are the thoracid duct and tight lymphatic duct
Foreign particles that are injected into the skin enter the lymphatic system rapidly
After lymph leaves the collecting ducts, it enters__ and becomes part of the ___. veins; plasma
The formation of lymph increases as a result of increasing osmotic oressure in tissue fluid
Lymph differs from plasma in that plasma has more protiens
The primary functions of lymph include returing protiens to the blood stream
The functions of the lymphatic system do not include transporting hormones to intestinal smooth muscle
Tissue fluid is __ and lymph is__. forced out of blood plasma and generally lacking in proteins absorbed into the lymph capillaries.
Stephanie has her cancerous right breast removed, and the surgeon also removes lymph nodes in the axillary region, to prevent spread of the cancer. As a result, Stephaine's right arm become edematous
The region of a lymph node through which blood vessels and nerves pass is called the hilum
The lymph nodes of the axillary region receive lymph mainly from the upper limb and mammary gland
Lymph nodes are grouped throughout the body except in the the CNS
The supratrochlear lymph nodes are located near the elbow
A lymph node consists of lymphocytes
Cells in a lymph node that engulf and destroy damaged cells, foreign substances, and cellular debris are macrophages
Henry has a cut on his thigh that becomes infected. The lymph nodes in his ___ enlarge. inguinal region
The spleen functions as blood reservior largest lymphatic organ, has nodules, and phagoctic cells
T lymphocytes mature in the thymus in response to Thymosins
The tissues of the spleen are called red and white pulp
Innate defenses are fast and non-specific
A virus differs from other pathogens in that it is not capable of reproduction outside a living cell
Inflammation is a response to heat, infection, chemical exposure, ultravoilet light
The mononuclear phagocytic system includes monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils
Interferon is a group of hormonelike peptides that cells produce in response to viruses
The most active phagocytic cells in circulating blood are neutrophiles and moncyetes
Interleukin-1 secreation causes a fever
Marsha gets a splinter in her finger. What is her blody's respones to any microbe that might try to enter her body as result of the splinter breaking the skin? innate defense
which of the following is not a mechanical barrier against microorganisms? diarrhea
___ initiate(s) a cascade effect in response to foreign proteins in the body. the complement system
Low-grade fever is an effective defense for short periods of time because it has phaogocyte cells that attack harder when the temp. rises, therefore a quick low-grade fever will be more affective then a long term.
An immune response that is slower but more specific for the pathogen is the adaptive defense
A transplant recipient's body recjects a transplanted organ because her___ her does not match that of the donor closely enough. major histocompatibility complex
Which of the following is part of the adaptive immune response? production of antibodies
Drugs used to reduce the tissue rejection reaction following the transplantation of tissue form one person to another dampen the recipients immune response
The cells that are primarily responsible for immunity are lymphocytes and macrophoages
A transplant recipient may be able to eventually discontinue immunosuppressant drugs if the donor received a well matched transplant from the recipient
T lymphocytes are responsible for they are killer cells. they kill bacteria that enter your body
The most abundant type of immunoglobulin is IgG
The type of resistance that is acquired as a result of developing a disease is naturally aquired active immunity
which of the following are cytokines? colony stimulating factors, interferons, interleukins, tumor necrosis factors
The antibodies produced in allergic reactions both B cells and T cells
Following a primary immune respones, the cells that give rise to memory cells are both B cells and T cells
Cytotoxic T- cells destroy cancer cells and virus- containing cells
Cytotoxic T- cells destroy their target cells by releasing perforin, which cuts holes in cell membranes
A newborn is protected against certain digestive and respiratory thanks to IgA from the mother's milk
Injections of gamma globulin are sometimes given to provide artificially acquired passive immunity
In an autoimmune disease, the immune response is directed towards cell of the body-self
which of the following is an autoimmune disease? juvenile hreumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes,systemic lupus erythematosus
An antigen is ___, whereas an antibody is___. a hepten molecule that is quite complicated in shape; an enzyme that is produced by the thymus gland to neutralized antigens
Complement proteins, which are activated when IgG or IgM antibodies bind antigen, causing opsonization, which coats the antibody antigens complexes in a way that attracts phagocytes.
plasma cells produces antibody molecules
A pimary immune respones___, and a secondary immune respones____. produces anitbodies within five to ten days of exposure to antigens; produces antibodies within a day or two of a subsequent exposure to the same antigen
In the cellular immune response T- cells attach directly to antigens and destroy them
A vaccine produces its effects by stimulating a primary immune response
B cells divide and differentiate into___ which produce and secrete antibodies. plasma cells
Newborns can acquire___ immunity through breast milk. antibodies
The anti-Rh factors is an example of an IgG
Heart valves cells can be damaged through autoimmunity
A vaccine can halt an infection in a population is most everyone is vaccinated due to heard immunity
Aging of the lymphatic system begins before birth
Morris has lungs cancer and is given the drug Avastin. His doctor says that the drug is a monoclonal antibody. This means that the drug consists of a single type of antibody
Factors that contribute to the prevalence of peanuts allergy in the U.S. include the fact that dry roasting activates the responsible allergens
In HIV infection, reverse trascriptase make DNA from viral RNA
A Vaccine against HIV maybe be impossible due to the variability and diversity of HIV
The order in HIV breaches barries and affects immunity is crossing the muscosal barriers, entering macrophages, entering helper T-cells than cytotoxic T- cells
Created by: Ludi