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BioChemistry

Final Pt 3

QuestionAnswer
mRNA precursors may be spliced by spliceosome
RNA synthesis (RNA, mRNA, and rRNA) is called transcription
Sequences found on the same molecule of DNA that contain information such as promoter sites are called cis-acting sequences
Activator and repressor proteins that participate in gene regulation are called Transacting elements
Unlike DNA synthesis, RNA synthesis does not require a primer
The region of RNA synthesis containing the DNA, RNA, and enzymes is called the transcription bubble
______ The term used to describe the mechanism by which drugs and other molecules slip between the bases of the DNA helix. Intercalation
A change made to the base sequence of RNA following transcription is called RNA editing
_____ A mechanism of splicing that allows diversity in the proteins generated from a particular gene. Alternative splicing
An RNA molecule that is catalytic is called a ribozyne
At least _____ % of all genetic diseases are caused by mutations that affect RNA splicing. 15
There are approximately _____ promoter sites found in E. coli. 2000
The ______ sequence is determined by an alignment of DNA base sequences used to deduce a recurring pattern or motif. consensus
The coding strand has the ____ sequence as the RNA transcript (except T instead of U) same
The ___ subunit of RNA polymerase recognizes promoters during heat-shock conditions. o-32
The RNA polymerase can unwind approximately _____ bases, or about 1.6 turns of B-DNA. 17
The rate of RNA synthesis in E. coli is approximately ______ nucleotides per minute. 50
The Rho protein terminates transcription by acting as a ______ helicase
The enzyme _____ transcribes a single precursor that encodes for the 18S rRNA, the 28S rRNA, and the 5.8S rRNA. RNA polymerase I
RNA self-splicing demonstrates the role of RNA as a ______ Catalyst
Percentage of diseases caused by mutations that affect mRNA splicing 15
Functions of RNA polymerase include searching for promoter sites, unwinding short stretches of DNA, detecting termination signals
DNA footprinting is a technique that allows one to determine where proteins bind to DNA
The structure of DNA must be in the _____ for transcription to occur. open promoter complex
RNA modifications in prokaryotes includes the following: cleavage and modification of nascent RNA, addition of nucleotides
Actinomycin interferes with transcription by binding to the DNA helix and preventing its use as an RNA template
RNA polymerase I transcribes the genes for 18S, 5.8 S, and 28S rRNA
Many eukaryotic promoters contain the following significant sites: a TATA site near -30 to -100, a CAAT site near -40 to -150
The key event in eukaryotic transcriptional activation is binding of the TATA-box-binding protein (TBP) to the TATA box
Which of the following modifications are made to eukaryotic tRNA transcripts? modification of base and ribose moieties, removal of 3' trailer, cleavage of 5' leader by RNase P, CCA is added
The chemical reaction(s) in RNA splicing include two transesterifications
The carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II is involved in recognition of the termination signal
Diseases caused by mutations in pre-mRNA or in the splicing factors include Retinitis pigmentosa
Proteins that possess alternative splicing products include calcitonin
The role of GTP in self-splicing is as a cofactor
Name the three stages of RNA synthesis The three stages of RNA synthesis are initiation, elongation, and termination
What is the definition of a promoter? A promoter is a sequence of DNA that directs the RNA polymerase to the proper site for transcription initiation
What is the significance of the o- subunit? The o- subunit contributes to initiation in several ways. It allows RNA polymerase to recognize promoter sites, & decreases nonspecific DNA to RNA polymerase interaction by decreasing the binding affinity of nonspecific interactions
How does RNA polymerase find the proper binding site? The RNA polymerase binds to the DNA and slides along it until the proper site is found
What is the theory for how palindromic RNA polymerase transcription termination signals function? In the palindromic region the bases form a hairpin stem and loop structure that is followed by a series of U-A base pairs. It is theorized that the RNA polymerase stalls at the palindromic sequence, & DNA template separates from nascent RNA at this point
What is a common feature of both protein-dependent and protein-independent termination signals in transcription? The signals that mediate termination events appear to function in the newly synthesized RNA, and not in the template DNA
How does the antibiotic rifamycin function mechanistically? Rifamycin functions by interfering with RNA synthesis initiation. The antibiotic binds to a channel required by the RNA-DNA complex, interfering with the formation of the initial phosphodiester bonds
How does binding of heat-shock proteins differ between E. coli and Drosophila? Heat-shock transcription factor (HSTF) I Drosophila differs from o-32, E. coli, in binding directly to response elements in heat-shock promoters rather than first becoming associated with RNA polymerase
Where are enhancer sequences found in the gene? Enhancers can be found upstream, downstream, or in the middle of a transcribed gene. They are often located thousands of bases away from the transcriptional start site.
Approximately, how many mRNA transcripts in higher eukaryotes undergo processing? Nearly all mRNA precursors in higher eukaryotes are spliced
What is unique about the type of RNA editing that occurs in the transcript for Apolipoprotein B? The nucleotide sequence of mRNA is changed AFTER its synthesis. A specific cytidine residue of mRNA is dreaminated to uridine, which changes an amino acid from Gln to stop
What is present in the spliceosome complex? The spliceosome complex contains the snRNPs, splicing factor proteins, and the mRNA molecule
Draw the mechanism of lariat formation in a splicing pathway Several comparisons are shown in figure 29.40
What are the two types of splicing categories? The reactions are grouped in categories of Group I and Group II. Group I uses a guanosine cofactor, whereas Group II utilizes the 2' OH group of an intron adenylate
Created by: AshCha