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Chem110 Test 8 rev

Chemistry 110 Deltech Owens Test 8 Review

QuestionAnswer
Name 2 theories of acids and bases. Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry theory
An Arrhenius acid is defined as... a substance that dissociates in water to form hydrogen ions. (H+)
What kind of acid is HCl? an Arrhenius acid, also a strong acid
An Arrhenius base is defined as... a substance that dissociates in water water to form hydroxide (OH-) ions.
NaOh is what kind of base? an Arrhenius base
What is an acid? a substance that dissociates to produce hydrogen ions when dissolved in water.
Acids are proton _. donors
A substance with a pH value less than _ is an acid. 7
What is a base? a substance that dissociates to produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water.
Bases are proton _. acceptors
A substance with a pH value of more than _ is a base. 7
The range of pH values is _ 0-14
Acids have the following qualities: sour taste, dissolve metals, cause plant dye to change color
Bases have the following qualities: bitter tasted, slippery, corrosive
Bleach is a _ base
The strength of a base or acid is really a measure of __ disassociation--the more it disassociates, the stronger it is.
Chemical formulas that start with an H are usually __ acids
Chemical formulas that end with an H are usually __ bases (most end with OH)
A strong acids reaction with water is about _%. 100
Acids and bases are both _ electrolytes
An example of a strong acid includes HNO3 (nitric acid), HCl (hydrochloric acid)
An example of a weak acid includes HF (hydrogen fluoride), H2S (hydrogen sulfide), C2H4O2 (acetic acid)
Methaline (CH3NH2) is a __ __ weak base
An example of a strong base includes NaOH (sodium hydroxied)
Ionization is the dissociation of acids and bases
Amphiprotic refers to a substance that is both a proton acceptor and a donator (a substance with the qualities of both an acid and a base is technically amphoteric)
A conjugate acid is what the base becomes after it accepts a proton
A conjugate base is what the acid become after it donates a proton
Which side of an equation are conjugate bases and acids written on? the right
A conjugate acid-base pair is the acid and base on opposite sides of a solution
pH scale measures the acidity or basicity of a solution
What unit does the pH scale use? it is unitless
The pH scale is defined as pH = -log[H3O+]
A neutralization reaction is the reaction of an acid with a base that produces salt and water
Titration is adding a measured amount of a standard solution to a 2nd, unknown solution to neutralize the solution
A standard solution is a solution of known concentration
An indicator is a substance which changes color as pH changes.
A buret is a long glass tube calibrated in mLs that contains a standard solution
A polyprotic substance donates or accepts more than one proton per formula unit
A diprotic substance donates or accepts 2 protons per formula unit; note that diprotic solutions are also polyprotic
A monoprotic substance donates or accepts 1 proton per formula unit
Is sulfuric acid (H2SO4) diprotic or monoprotic? diprotic
Is HCl (hydrochloric acid) polyprotic or monoprotic? monoprotic
A buffer solution is a solution that resists large changes in pH when an acid or base is added
Buffers establish an __ between conjugate acid-base pairs. equilibrium
LeChatelier's Principle is a buffer in action.
Buffer capacity is a measure of a solution's ability to resist large changes in pH when a strong acid or base is added
Oxidation, as it relates to oxidation-reduction processes, is a loss of electrons, loss of hydrogen atoms, a gain of oxygen (EHO - Lose Oxygen/more losses than gains)
Reduction, as it relates to oxidation-reduction processes, is a gain of electrons, gain of hydrogen atoms, a loss of oxygen
Corrosion is the decay of metals caused by oxidation-reduction processes
An example of corrosion is rust
A voltaic cell is an electrochemical cell that converts stored chemical energy into electrical energy
An anode is the electrode where oxidation occurs in a voltaic cell
A cathode is the electrode where reduction occurs in a voltaic cell (Cathy loses weight; cathode=reduction)
An electrolysis reaction is a nonspontaneous oxidation-reduction reaction that's driven by an electric current
__ __ are rechargeable. electrolitic cells
A reducing agent is the substance that donates an electron to another species in a reduction-oxidation reaction
An oxidizing agent is the substance that accepts an electron from another species during a reduction-oxidation reaction
A reducing reaction is a half-reaction where a chemical species decreases its oxidation number.
In a reducing reaction, the electron (e-) will on which side of the arrow? right
In an oxidizing reaction, the electron (e-) will on which side of the arrow? left
An oxidizing reaction is a half-reaction where a chemical species increases its oxidation number
Hydrogen ions are called protons
Reversible arrows mean the acid or base in the formula is weak and therefore reversible
Single direction arrows mean the acid or base in the formula is strong and therefore irreversible
H3O+ is called an hydronium ion
Kw is the ion product for water
The Henderson-Hasselbach equation is: pKa=pH - log (formulas)
Respiration is an electron-transport chain that uses reversible oxidation and reduction of iron atoms in cytochrome c
Metabolism is the break down of molecules into smaller pieces by enzymes
Spectator ions are the parts of a net ionic equation that remain unchanged
If hydronium (H3O+) is present on the far right of the equation, then the chemical at the opposite end (the far left) must be a weak acid
If hydroxide (OH-) is present on the far right of the equation, then the chemical at the opposite end (the far left) must be a weak base
Any molecule that loses, or donates, an electron in an equation is an acid
Any molecule that gains, or accepts, an electron in an equation is a base
The acid on the left of an equation will be the __ on the right side. conjugate base
The base on the left side of an equation will be the __ on the right side. conjugate acid
The negative superscript number in an equilibrium expression tells us the __ of the substance. concentration
The negative superscript number in an ion product of water (Kw) expression tells us the __ of the substance. pH value
If you add an acid to a solution, the pH goes down
If you add a base to a solution, its pH goes up
A net ionic equation is written with only the __ __ showing. changed components
In an equilibrium constant solution, __ go over __. products go over reactants (or substances on the right side of the arrow get written above those on the left)
Created by: IsaacJ